What are the differences and similarities among Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism ?




From the Latin religere, “to bond together.” Religions attempt to describe relationships between individuals, communities and the sacred and provide followers with a systematic context in which to live their lives.

Indonesian Religions


Indonesian Religions

Indonesia is one of the most ancient homes of man. In 1891 a fossil skull of Homo erectus was found in Central Java that is half a million years old, and later an even more primitive type was unearthed. In 1931 the more advanced Solo Man was discovered in the same area.But these prehistoric people were obliterated by incoming migrants. 30,000 years ago came Negrito pygmies from an unknown region. Most peoples today in Indonesia speak Austronesian languages and linguistic evidence suggests that these languages originated on Taiwan and the nearby coast of China. By 2,500 BCE these Austronesians had reached Borneo and were infiltrating eastern and western Indonesia. This common source of peoples is reflected in the traditional religions, which share important features.

The subsequent history of Indonesia is a succession of invading cultures – Indian, Chinese, Cambodian, Melanesian/Polynesian, Portuguese, Arabian, English, Dutch – that has resulted in a rich and complex civilisation in which the main religions of the world – Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity – have been grafted on to the traditional religions of Indonesia. In this interweaving of religions there have been fascinating local variations and this is a dynamic process that is continuing today.

The first Hindu inscriptions date from the fourth century CE, though Indian traders had arrived in Sumatra, Java, and Sulawesi two centuries earlier. By the fifth century Hinduism was established on Java with Brahmanist cults worshipping Siva. By the sixth century Buddhism was important in Sumatra and Java, with the port of Srivijaya in southern Sumatra becoming a centre of learning in the seventh century. Borobudur, the largest Buddhist monument in the world, was built in the ninth century, and depicts the Buddhist cosmos. In contrast to India, Hinduism and Buddhism in Indonesia lived in harmony and by the ninth century syncretism was appearing. In the tenth century students travelled to Nalanda, the great Buddhist monastic university in India, and even to Tibet. During the twelth and thirteenth centuries Srivijaya exerted an influence over all South-East Asia. The peak of Hindu-Javanese civilisation was the Majapahit Empire in the fourteenth century, described as the golden age of Indonesian history.

The Indonesian population is today classified as 89 per cent Muslim. Arab trade with Indonesia started about the fourth century CE, though Islam did not become established until the fourteenth century, coming from Gujarat in India. The early Islamic centres were in north and west Sumatra, spreading then to west and north-central Java. Twenty Islamic kingdoms were prospering by the end of the fifteenth century. The Bugis officially became Muslims between 1605 and 1610. Batak contact with Islam came in the 1820’s. There was an Islamic reform movement in the early twentieth century with the establishment of Muhammadiyah in 1912 and Nahdatul Ulama in 1926 (see entries on these).

Though the statistics make Indonesia a predominantly Islamic country, the most populous in the Islamic world, Bali is an important traditional Hindu-Buddhist island and there have been recent Hindu conversions in south Java. Besides the growth of Neo-Hinduism there has been a Neo-Buddhist expansion. This is rooted in the Tengger, the only extant folk-Buddhist population, living near the volcano of Mount Bromo on Java. Since 1965 the Indonesian Buddhist Association says it has built ninety monasteries and has won fifteen million followers. These Hindu-Buddhist revivals incorporate indigenous Balinese and Javanese traditions and huge festivals are held at Borobudur and other ancient sites. There are traces of Hindu-Buddhist religion throughout Indonesian culture. The symbol of Indonesia is the mythical Garuda bird, the mount of Vishnu.

On Java only about ten per cent of the people follow the pure santri form of Islam, some thirty per cent follow a syncretic Javanese form of Islam – a blend of Sufism, Hinduism, and traditional religion, while the remainder adhere to traditional Javanese beliefs, Hinduism, and Buddhism. The religious complexity of Java is reflected in the hundreds of sects on the island.

Christians account for seven per cent of the population and are found in centres all over Indonesia. Catholicism arrived with the Portuguese about 1512, who stayed for 150 years. The Dutch reached Indonesia in 1596 and brought Protestantism. In the early seventeenth century the English were rivals to the Dutch. There was Batak contact with Christianity in the 1850’s and 1860’s. It was also in the nineteenth century that Christianity spread from the coastal ports of Borneo and missionaries arrived among the Torajans on Sulawesi. Indonesia became free of the Dutch with independence on 27 December, 1949.

Chinese Indonesians are usually classified as Buddhist but can be Taoist, Confucianist, or Christian. There was a Chinese invasion of Java in 1293.

In 1965 after the killing of half a million so-called Communists, the Indonesian government required all people to profess a recognised religion. Traditional religions were not recognised and some peoples have been classified under recognised religions. For example, tribal religions from various islands have beeen included under Bali-Hindu, which is an official religion.

There are important areas of traditional religion surviving in Indonesia. Sometimes these are blended with a major religion, as with the Aceh and Islam, and the Batak and Christianity. Traditional religious groups are considered as separate entries: see Acehnese Religion, Balinese Religion, Batak Religion, Bornean Religions, Bugis Religion, Javanese Religion, Toraja Religion. In addition, there are survivals of isolated peoples who follow a hunter-gatherer way of life with a little cultivation. Examples of these are the Sakkudei who live on the island of Siberut off western Sumatra, the Kubu in the forests of Sumatra, the Punan in Borneo (Kalimantan), and the Da’a of Sulawesi. Sumba is the only island in Indonesia where a majority of the population adhere to their traditional religion.

There are several basic concepts and practices found in the traditional religions of Indonesia, which are common to the Austronesian religious conceptual framework

First, there is a prevalence of complementary duality. The Toraja believe that the universe originates from the marriage of heaven and earth. The chief deity of the Sumbanese is a paired being, Amawolo/Amarawi. Sacred space is divided into an upper world and an underworld, inside and outside, upstream and downstream, and in terms of classes of people. This parallelism and dualism is enacted in ritual celebration and even pervades Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity, as for example in the wayang, shadow theatre.

Second, there is belief in the immanence of life. It is too simplistic to refer to this as ‘animism.’ There is typically a multitude of life forms. Many traditional religions do not have a single origin of mankind. The origin of some types of humans is not explained. In some religions, all spirits are evil, while other religions recognise benevolent spirits who are called on to intervene against the malevolent spirits. The aim of all the traditional religions is a ritual balance in which each life form has its due place. The human body, a village, a house, or a ship can be the symbolic representation of the cosmos. Characteristically, life depends on death and the dead play an important role in religious life, as with the slametan ritual of Java. Sacrificial animals can be identified with the dead, such as the water buffalo of the Toraja.

Third, there are rituals of life and death. These are part of a cycle to enhance life and commonly have an agricultural theme with planting, growing, and ripening into old age. Death rituals are highly important and these can have stages continuing for years to assist the dead in the journey through the afterworld. Headhunting was formerly an integral part of these death rituals.

Lastly, there is the celebration of spiritual differentiation with an openness to life and acceptance of its manifold manifestations. Such manifestations – sun, moon, stars, thunder, lightning, strong winds, mountains, volcanic craters, caves, old trees, ancient sites, royal regalia, and amulets – tend to be personalised. These life forms are venerated for their potency. All traditional societies have social hierarchies. These may be based on different spiritual origins. Heroic journeys of folk heroes are echoed in the importance given to journeys in life to gain knowledge, experience, and wealth. Rituals involve journeys, such as a ship of the dead. Through mortuary ritual, the dead can give benefits to the living.

Traditional religion in Indonesia is today under threat, especially from Islam and Christianity. These religions teach transcendence rather than the immanence of life and spiritual equality over spiritual differentiation. Examples of important 20th century Islamic movements are Muhammadiyah and Nahdatual Ulama. However, the rise of the kebatinan movements show that traditional religion is still of vibrant importance in Indonesia. Kebatinan is from the Javanese word batin, of Arabic origin, meaning “inner.” There are a thousand kebatinan sects flourishing, mainly on Java, and most were founded this century. The beliefs and practices of the kebatinan sects go back to the eighth century CE and the start of Javanese Hindu-Buddhist civilisation (See Subud.). It seems likely that the twenty-first century will see religious movements in Indonesia playing thieir earlier reformative role independent of central government.


Belo, Jane, Bali: Temple Festival New York 1953.________ Trance in Bali New York 1960.

Bigalke, Terance Williams, A Social History of Tana Toraja 1875-1965 Ann Arbor 1981.

Dalton, B, Indonesia Handbook 4th. Edition, Chico, California 1988. See also 6th. Edition, June 1995.

Eliade, Mircea, ed., The Encyclopedia of Religion New York 1987.
Entries on: Acehnese Religion, Vol. 1, pp. 24-26; Balinese Religion, Vol. 2, pp. 45-49; Batak Religion, Vol. 2, pp. 81-83; Bornean Religions, Vol. 2, pp. 290-92; Bugis Religion, Vol. 2, pp. 560-61; Javanese Religion, Vol. 7, pp. 559-63; Toraja Religion, Vol. 14, pp. 565-67.

Fox, James, ed., The Flow of Life: Essays on Eastern Indonesia Cambridge, Mass. 1980.

Geels, A. Subud and the Javanese Mystical Tradition Richmond Curzon Press, 1997.

Geertz, Clifford, The Religion of Java London 1960.

____________ The Interpretation of Cultures New York 1973.

Hooykaas, C., Religion in Bali Iconography of Religions series XIII, 10, Institute of Religious Iconography, State University, Groningen, published Leiden 1973.

__________ Cosmogony and Creation in Balinese Tradition The Hague 1974.

Jensen, Erik, The Iban and Their Religion Oxford 1974.

Lansing, J. Stephen, Three Worlds of Bali New York 1983.

Longcroft, Harlinah. Subud is a Way of Life Subud International Publications Ltd., 1990.

___________. History of Subud. Vol I: The Coming of Subud (1901-1959), Book 1: The Beginning in Indonesia Houston: al-Baz Publishing Inc, 1993.

McKingley, Luqman. Adam and His Children. A brief history of human life Excerpts from talks by Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo, compiled and edited by Luqman McKingley. Paintings by Midelti. Sydney: Starlight Press, 1992.

Moore, Albert C., Iconography of Religions: An Introduction London 1977.

Nooy-Palm, Hetty, The Sa’dan-Toraja: A Study of Their Social Life and Religion, Vol. 1., Organisation, Symbols and Beliefs Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-land en Volkenkunde, no. 87, The Hague 1979. Also, Vol. 2, Rituals.

Pope, Salamah. Antidote. Experience of a Spiritual Energy, collected by Salamah Pope Hailsham: Subud International Publications Ltd., 1983.

Ramseyer, Urs, The Art and Culture of Bali Oxford 1977.

Rodgers, Susan, Adat, Islam, and Christianity in a Batak Homeland Athens, Ohio 1981.

Siegel, James T, The Rope of God Berkeley 1969.

____________ Shadow and Sound: The Historical Thought of a Sumatran People Chicago 1979.

Sitompul, P.P. Susila Budhi Dharma – International Mystic Movement of Indonesia Claremont Graduate School (dissertation), 1974.

Smart, Harris. Sixteen Steps. And Other Journeys in Subud Sydney: Starlight Press, 1988.

____________. Living Religion in Subud. An Introduction – Personal and Historical Extracts from Bapak’s Talks. Experiences and Evidences of Subud members in different faiths, compiled and edited by Matthew Barry Sullivan. Hailsham, East Sussex: Humanus Ltd., 1991.

Sumohadiwidjojo, Muhammad Subuh. (1959) Bapak’s New York Talks 1959 Wallingford, Oxon: Subud Publications International, 1975.

____________. The Way Ahead. Nine Talks by Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo at the fifith Subud World CongressWolfsburg, 13-23 June 1975. Berks: Subud Publications Interantional Ltd., 1976.

____________. (1961) Subud and the Active Life. Talks given at the International Congress 1959 Rickmansworth: Subud Publications International Ltd., 1984

____________. (1957) Susila Budhi Dharma Subud Indonesia Publication, 1990.

____________. Bapak’s Talks Volume I, June 1957-June 1958. Wiltshire: Subud Publications International, 1993.

Antu Dalam Budaya Iban (Ghosts in Iban culture)

Antu Dalam Budaya Raban Bansa Iban


Panyun jaku

Sekali tu aku deka ngupas enggau ngelansa sentang pengarap mensia sentang antu kelebih agi ba raban bansa Iban. Antu seruran digambarka baka pendiau mensia, tang suah agi dikumbai utai ti ludas, bekilat sereta bekabus. Antu nadai ngembuan batang tubuh fizikal baka kitai mensia. Kadang-kadang kitai semina meda senayau sida, tang dalam fenomena baka bunyi, pemindah sesebengkah objek enggau aktiviti-aktiviti bukai sereta enda ngembuan dalih ti logik. Pengarap ngagai antu endang udah lama bisi dalam semua budaya di dunya tu.
Di barat, komuniti sida pechaya endang bisi antu besaruk enggau raban mensia. Antu dianggap sida nya roh ti enda likun lalu seruran datai ke dunya tu ketegal pengidup sekeda individu nya ti bedosa sereta enda nerima pemati sida. Kadang-kadang antu dipeda bisi ayan sesegau di langit enggau nadai temu tuju. Nitihka pengarap raban sekeda nya madahka antu tauka roh jai nya anak mit ti baru ada ti diau di entara serega enggau neraka laban enda dibaptiska.

Dalam budaya Asia, mayuh orang pechaya ada baru sepengudah kitai mati. Antu nya roh ti enggai ” dikitarka baru” ketegal semengat sida enda selamat. Dalam adat asal bansa China, antu ulih nyadi tetap enggau setengah petara  tauka iya mega ulih ke neraka lalu betapi enggau pemerinsa sepemanjai maya. Orang China mega pechaya antu bisi kuasa diadaka baru dikena nebus penyilap sida ngelama tu.

Dalam agama Hindu , penerang ti lenak sentang antu bisi diterangka dalam “Garuda Purana “, siti kitab ari ” Vedik ” tradisyen. Kedua-dua Barat enggau Asia bekunsi pengarap ti sama pelasar sentang antu. Iya nya, antu seruran segau-segau ba endur sida ke udah nadai. Tempat-tempat ti baka tu dikumbai ” rumah berantu “, lalu pengawa sida sida nya selalu ngeregau tauka ” ngantu “ orang ke agi idup.

Besenutuk enggau pekara tu, nitihka pengarap Buddha, sida ngaul-gulai konsep rampa dunya antu lapar. Utai ba rampa menua tu dikumbai ” antu lapar ” ketegal sida ditan di dunya tu. ” Asuras ” mega dikumbai ” antu beperang “.

Dalam raban bansa Iban, leka jaku antu tu endang udah lama bisi kenyau ari sida ke ngemeranka pengarap animisma kelia. Nya alai, batang kenang kesekali tu nguji ngupas enggau ngelansa sentang antu dalam budaya raban bansa Iban ti disidi nengah pansik librari.

Batang kenang

Dalam budaya raban bansa Iban, antu tu besai bendar reti sereta balat dikenakutka sida. Nembiak ke agi mit endang suah diemba enggau jaku antu ngambika sida ngasika orang tuai. Pia mega kelia pendam orang Iban sigi digaga jauh ari genturung pendiau sida nangika antu ngeregau sereta ngachau pengidup sida ke agi idup. Nitihka pengarap raban bansa Iban bisi dua bansa antu iya nya antu jai engggau antu manah.

Keterubah tu kitai meratika antu ti dikategorika antu jai. Raban bansa Iban pechaya antu jai bisi ba sekeda endur baka ba pendam, ba kayu kara enggau ba endur ti bukai. Antu jai kenu ku bala Iban tau ngerusak tauka munuh mensia. Sekeda ari bansa antu jai nya nyengkaum antu buyu, antu gambi, antu gerasi, antu kamba enggau antu kuklir.

Antu buyu nya antu ti ngachau orang indu tauka anak mit. Iya mega dikumbai enggau nama bera tauka libang. Tu antu indu ke alai indu ti mati beranak ngarung diri. Bisi mega orang ngumbai nya antu anak. Dalam pengarap lama Iban, antu buyu ngarung diri ba jelu baka jelu enturan, baya, lelabi, kijang enggau jelu ti bukai. Antu buyu bisi lima bansa. Bansa ti keterubah nya buyu anak. Buyu anak tu munuh anak mit ti bedau tumbuh ngeli.  Kedua nya dikumbai buyu asa. Buyu asa tu munuh nembiak indu ke bedau datai kain. Lalu iya ti ketiga nya buyu meruk. Antu bansa tu ngasuh raban sida ke indu nya kelebuan. Antu buyu keempat nya dikumbai buyu nyangkai. Antu buyu nyangkai tu ngasuh orang sakit lama meayu-ayu. Kepenudi nya buyu resa. Antu tu munuh indu ti benung betubuh bisi tauka ngandung. Buyu bisi ditemu diau ba rumah baka ba sadau, tempuan tauka kaki atap. Antu buyu tu ngeregau anak mit. Kelimpah ari nya bisi mega buyu tembawai. Tu semengat orang tuai ke udah parai ke nyadi buyu lalu diau sebelah-belah tembawai enggau endur ti bukai. Dalam pengarap Iban, semina manang aja teburu tauka tebunuhka buyu.

Antu jai ti kedua nya dikumbai antu gambi. Antu gambi ti bemunyi digak-digak iya nya munyi orang ke getar-getar chelap suah ngarung diri ba burung puk, ba tunggul kayu ti engkinjur tauka ba sekeda jelu. Pansik nadai mega madahka bansa jelu ti alai antu gambi tu ngarung diri.

Bansa antu jai ti ketiga nya antu gerasi. Antu tu besai, tinggi sereta mangah. Antu tu suah ngachau mensia. Dalam ensera Iban, antu gerasi nya belunchum pala sereta ngembuan dilah ti panjai sampai ke nyau ulih dibelit iya ba pala nyadi labung. Bisi mega orang ngumbai nya antu gerasi papa. Antu gerasi papa diau kediri-diri lalu nadai tau beranak. Nama bukai antu tu iya nya gerasi girau gerawan.

Nangkanka tu iya nya antu kamba. Antu kamba nya antu mit ke selalu mai orang tesat. Kenu ku orang tuai, lebuh bejalai dalam kampung kitai dilalau anang enda bepatahka pating daun kayu dikena ngelaika jalai enggaika kitai tesat ditabanka antu kamba.

Sebansa agi antu jai nya antu kuklir. Tu sebansa antu ti dikenakutka orang lelaki laban anu iya ba pelir, nginsap darah dia. Kenu ku pengarap tuai Iban kelia, kuklir nya semengat indu ke mati beranak ti ngarung diri ba sekeda jelu baka enturun enggau landak. Iya nganu orang lelaki ke selalu agi lelaki ti udah nyadi ambai iya lebuh iya agi idup. Kukut antu kuklir nya panjai sereta ngeli iya juring tajam. Kuklir ngakak tauka ngekuk lalu kadang-kadang bemunyi rikut-rikut munyi indu manuk ti benung meramka telu.

Kelimpah ari rintai antu ti udah disebut di atas, sebansa agi antu jai nya dikumbai antu tuk tuie. Tuk tuie tu nyumbuh tunggal besai ti udah mati lalu mali diri nyadi antu gerasi. Kenu ku cherita, tuai nyumbuh tunggal nya muai tujuh lambar daun kara ari puchuk. Enti semua daun tujuh lambar nya enda beserara lebuh terengkah di tanah, dia iya nemu diri udah bebali nyadi antu gerasi tuk tuie.

Raban bansa Iban mega ngembuan pengarap antu jai tau mega ngarung diri ba mensia. Sekeda antu ti dikumbai Iban ngarung diri ba mensia nya nyengkaum antu engkerasak, antu kepapas, antu rua enggau antu tisil.

Antu engkerasak nya antu ke ngasuh iban udu berandauka orang. Engkerasak ke bendar tu sebansa burung. Nya alai bisi sempama Iban ti bemunyi tu; pandak mulut engkerasak panjai mulut kitai. Amat mih mulut engkerasak nya panjai tang mulut mensia ti becherita pasal orang bukai nya kiraka panjai agi sereta impak negatif iya balat agi.

Nangkanka antu enkerasak nya antu kepapas. Antu kepapas nya antu ke ngasuh iban kepapaska orang. Nya alai Iban bisi jaku: baka tegar ke makai besi, baka nya mega antu kepapas makai orang ke kepapas. Kitai enda nemu pengamat bala Iban ke kepapaska pangan diri. Kepapas nya asai ati ti enda lantang tauka begedika orang ketegal ti alah pemisi, pemandai, pemajik, penyigat etb. Sida ti kepapas tu ngembuan ulah ti rindu meda orang tusah, enda mujur enggau ti bukai.

Bansa kedua penudi nya antu rua. Antu rua tu antu ke ngasuh Iban rua enggau pemisi. Nya alai dalam budaya raban bansa Iban maya bisi pengawa tauka gawai sida endang suah ngagihka pemakai tauka ai irup ungkup antu rua, antu rangka. Dulu suba utai tu dikumbai piring penagang diberi ngagai antu rua ti diengkah ba atas keresang ba pun jalai enggau siti ba atas keresang di ujung jalai. Enti di rumah panjai, sida selalu muai pemakai tauka ai irup ke baruh rumah tanda pemeri sida ke antu rua. Sebedau muai pemakai sida selalu nyebut, “Tu nya, untung antu rua, antu rangka. Enggi kami anang kita agi minta, anang agi nanya. Utai tu bai nuan pulai ke Brunai, ke tasik besai, bai pulai ke Sintang ke Tawang.”

Kepenudi nya antu tisil. Antu tisil nya antu ke ngasuh Iban miskin enda tulihka utai. Reti tisil dalam konteks tu nya enda tulihka utai, jai nasit tauka sial. Antu tisil nya antu ti tau ngasuh tisil. “Nama-nama antu tisil dibai menantu iya nya ngagai bilik sida ke ngasuh sida enda kala agi bulih padi sekumbang udah datai iya.” Chunto jaku orang bukai ke orang sebilik ke enda bulih utai kenyau bisi menantu laban dikumbai bisi mai antu tisil.

Kelimpah ari antu jai, raban bansa Iban mega arapka bisi nya antu ke manah-manah. Antu manah dianggap sida diau di Panggau Libau, endur-endur ti tetap, ba Batang Mandai tauka ba sebarang alai. Sida Iban mega arap antu manah tu tau nulung nyukung sida dalam pengidup.

Sekeda antu manah nya nyengkaum Sengalang Burung, Menjaya Raja Manang, Ini Andan, Sempulang Gana, Selempandai, sida Keling enggau Kumang sereta bala aki ini tauka kaban belayan sida ke udah nadai. Peratika penteba bansa antu ti manah nangkanka tu.

Ini Andan nya antu manah ti nulung Iban bejedian enggau pemakai sereta duit ringgit. Ini Andan nya gela indu tuai kelia ke dipechayaka diau di langit. Nya alai dalam ensera Iban suah bendar besebutka Ini Andan; Ini Andan ke diau di bulan ke suah mega disebut Ini Inda Rabung Menua, Ini (ini’) Ini Rabung Hari.

Nangkanka Ini Andan nya Keling ti suah dikumbai Keling Gerasi Nading Bujang Berani Kempang, Jelingau ke Betugau Mayuh Rambang. Keling tu siku lelaki antu ari menua ti dikumbai Panggau Libau. Iya tu sigat gamal sereta berani tajam ati. Iya dianggap raban bansa Iban nya Petara laban suah nyemia nulung Iban. Bini Keling nya Kumang.

Kumang mega dianggap raban bansa Iban nya antu ti manah laban Kumang enggau bala iya nulung bala indu Iban nemu nakar ngar, nemu nyikat ngebat. Iban arap bendar Kumang tu antu indu tauka Petara ti nadai penimpang dalam pemansang selangkuh tubuh, pemintar, pemandai enggau pengelandik gawa. Iya mega diberitaka bajik gamal, manah adat enggau basa, siru enggau orang sereta meruan jalai pendiau enggau pengidup. Kumang suah dikumbai Jawai Mensanggai Dayang Kumang. Menua alai iya ada disebut Gelong Batu Nakung Nyingit Nyingung Nyandar Nerabang.

Siku agi antu ti manah nya dikumbai Menjaya. Raja Menjaya nya siku ari menyadi sida Sengalang Burong. Sengalang Burong berunding mai orang mangun menyadi iya empu ke benama Menjaya jadi manang bali ngambika bisi ngubat bini Sengalang Burong empu ke benama Indai Kechendai Bepantak Jirak, Dara Sentaba Balun Kupak. Bini Sengalang Burong tu tak seruran mayur-ayur tabin bebirin lembau makai, pedera renga lain asai, sakit lengit enda nyamai (Sandin: 1964). Udah dibangun Raja Menjaya lalu dikumbai Manang Bali menyadi Aki Sengalang Burong, kedua bali nama Matai Tuai Raja Menjaya, Manang Langgong Ngembuan Puchong Penyangga Nyawa. Pengawa mangunka Raja Menjaya tu dipejalaika ba tuchung Bukit Rabong, iya nya entara menua Sarawak enggau Kalimantan, menua raban bansa Iban kelia. Udah dibangun, Raja Menjaya lalu betawaika bini Sengalang Burong. Tawai nya pengawa manang ngubat orang ke sakit. Udah betawai, bini iya pan lalu gerai. Udah ke gerai, iya lalu beranak ke empat iku anak. Kenyau ari nya raban bansa Iban arapka Antu Menjaya nya antu ti nulung ngeraika Iban ari penyakit. Tu mih keterubah raban bansa Iban berengkah nemu bemanang. Kenyau ari nya mega semua manang ke dibangun nya ukai ari perintah Raja Menjaya tang ari mensia empu, iya nya ukai ketegal kena kangau antu tang ari runding diri empu.

Udah nya bisi antu ti dikumbai antu Selempandai. Tu antu diarapka Iban nempa mensia. Iya mega baka antu manah ke bukai diau di langit. Bali nama iya nyengkaum Selempatah, Selempatih, Selempeta, Selempetah enggau Selempetuh. Nitihka pengarap Iban, Raja Selempandai tau begulaika tanah perai nyadi kerigai anak mensia, Raja Selempeta tau nempa teruba iya, Raja Selempetuh tau ngambuh tubuh mula ada.

Sebansa agi antu ti manah nya dikumbai Sengalang Burong. Sengalang Burong tu antu manah ti pemadu dipebasa sereta pemadu tinggi dalam pengarap Iban. Iya ngibun sereta nulung Iban lebuh sida ngayau. Iya enda tau alah maya beperang lalu ngena jaku ajih aja tau nyaup sida Iban ngalahka munsuh. Nitihka siti cherita, mula iya kelia, gawai Iban enda mayuh macham kelebih ari makai enggau ngirup, taja pan sida baru pulai ngayau bulih pala. Hari siti, siku tuai mai bala orang begawai maya bulan kembung. Iya lalu ngangau orang ngabang. Lebuh nya datai Sengalang Burong lalu ngajihka langit petang taja pan maya nya bulan kembung. Pengabang bukai lalu enda ulih datai. Ngena peluang nya, Sengalang enggau bala iya ari langit lalu datai. Orang ti begawai nyau tekenyit meda bala iya enggai niki rumah sida. Sida semina deka niki udah tuai gawai setuju nyediaka jani dikena ngenselanka penatai sida. Sida pengabang dipeda orang lembau amai makai enggau ngirup. Udah nya tuai gawai enggau bini iya lalu luput. Bala manang ti bisi enggau ngabang nyau nguji ngubat seduai iya tang enda ulih. Udah nya orang bukai mega luput. Nyau kelama nya baru bala sida dipuchau Sengalang Burong lalu suman. Dia Sengalang Burong lalu ngajar sida iya madahka sida enti enggai ditinggang penusah maya begawai, sida mesti ngenselan bala pengabang enggu darah jani tauka darah manuk. Kelimpah ari nya piring mesti udah disedia lebuh sida ke tanju. Keresa mesti chukup lalu gendang pepat mesti ditabuh. Lebuh sida meda iya lebuh iya ngambi gambar burung lang, sida mesti ngetu nempap gendang pepat lalu pulai ke ruai. Udah nya baru gawai tau dikumbai tembu. Udah meri jaku ajar, Sengalang burung enggau bala menantu iya lalu mali diri nyadi burung lalu terebai pulai. Iya empu mali diri nyadi lang. Nama Sengalang Burong Endu Sudan Berinjan Bungkong Endu Diu Tiung Menyelung. Nama iya udah ditukar laban lebuh agi biak iya bisi sakit lalu dipemanang. Nama iya ditukar awakka antu ti mediska iya enda ngelala iya agi lalu enda ulih ngachau agi. Nama dulu iya Indai Kechendai Bepantak Jirak Dara Sentaba Balun Kupak.

Udah nya antu ti benama Sempulang Gana. Iban mega arap bendar ke antu tu laban iya nguasa tanah enggau pengawa bumai betaun. Iya ngembuan mayuh nama nyengkaum Sempulang Gana Biak, Sempulang Gana Tuai, Sempulang Gana Kayung. Nyadi Sempulang Gana tu mega digelar Raja Sua. Iya dikarapka bansa Iban kenyau ari asal kelia bekuasa atas pengawa betanam betupi ke nyadi batang pengidup enggau penatai pemisi bansa Iban. Kebuah pia, laban iya ngembuan pesaka tanah dapur, untung iya lebuh sida menyadi bedua reta tengkira sebedau sida beserara pendiau ari pangan diri kelia. Nambahka nya, iya mega jadi enggau anak Raja Semarugah ke ngembuan gemala ati tanah, lalu nguasa semua tanah, ti ngasuh iya disembah ngena piring ading lebuh Iban ngereja pengawa ba tanah. Nyadi penatai Sempulang Gana nya ari Raja Durongke bejuluk Lumpung Tibang Bebaring, Durong tuai ke berumah di tatai belakang tinting. Iya bebini ngambi Endu Dara Talun Pelangka ngemataka kuta dinding hari, Endu Cherembang Cheremin Bintang Tukuh Lawang Pinggai Bekaki, lalu iya mega digelar orang Endu Sabaku Techabut Sumping ngembuan taring ubat kelia, Endu Iyak Jelapa Pirak ngembuan kutak ubat lama. Seduai iya beranak tujoh iku, lalu Raja Sempulang Gana tu anak seduai ke biak ke sida menyadi. Nyadi sekali Sempulang Gana pegi ngiga orang ke bisi ngembuan leka mengkenyang. Nyau kelama iya udah belayar di tasik, iya lalu datai ba menua siti ke benama Gelenggang Gumbang muat, Kerimpak Guong Silat, di kaki pasir entap ke tau alai bemimpi nyadi kenyap, ngasuh orang terangkat jadi raja. Menua nya dipangkangEndu Kelinah ke terubah nemu jalai idup, kedua bali nama iya Endu Kaul Kawa Penyangga tulang lembut. Ba iya dia Raja Sempulang Gana bulih leka mengkenyang. Nyadi leka mengkenyang tu beguna bendar, laban iya jadika sulu padi tumbuh ba umai ari pesan Sempulang Gana empu kenyau ari iya ke bulih pesaka nya ari Endu Dara Kelinah kelia. Nya kebuah lebuh bansa Iban bumai, sebedau padi ditugalka ba tegalan, dia mengkenyang dulu ditanam sendi selepak panggal benih. Mengkenyang tu mali disingkang enggaika burut enti orang nya lelaki, lalu tara enti orang nya indu. Lebuh mengkenyang ditanam di umai, enti iya pisit bebungai, nya madahka pemanah padi taun nya. Enti iya bebungai engka sekali aja, nya madahka padi enda tentu berapa buah. Mengkenyang orang ke enda kala bulih padi endang enggai bendar bebungai. Semua Iban ke bumai endang nitihka ajar Sempulang Gana. Sida nyembah iya belama-lama lebuh sida manggul sereta lebuh padi sida sakit balat. Baka nya mega enti sida suah enda mujur taun, sida nirika gawai ke dikumbai Gawai Batu awakka Sempulang Gana mela batu umai sida. Nyadi enti padi sida sakit, dia Iban endang mela iya enggau gawai ke dikumbai sida Gawai Umai awakka Sempulang Gana ngeraika umai sida. Nya alai, lebuh ngereja pengawa gawai umai, dia orang ngambi lemambang mengap, minta tulung, minta sukung Sempulang Gana sereta enggau antu enggau lulu.

Sebansa agi antu manah ti dikarapka raban bansa Iban nya antu ti dikumbai Anda Mara. Anda Mara nya antu ke nyaga pengeraja Iban. Dalam leka sampi tauka pengap lemambang suah nyebut Anda Mara nya Anda Mara Raja Pengibai.

Antu manah ti kepenudi bendar dalam raban bansa Iban nya aki ini enggau kaban belayan sida raban bansa Iban empu ke bidik lansik, kaya raja, gerai nyamai tauka ke pandai di chunggai jari tiga. Sida tu mega suah dikangau dalam leka sampi ke alai bala Iban bepintaka reta tengkira, duit ringgit sereta pengerai.

Penutup kenang

Pengarap ngagai antu endang udah lama bisi dalam semua budaya di dunya tu enda ngira nya ari barat, menua China, timur tengah, Asia sereta pengarap Hindu enggau Buddha. Dalam raban bansa Iban, leka jaku antu tu endang udah lama bisi kenyau ari sida ke ngemeranka pengarap animisma kelia. Taja pan batang kenang kesekali tu semina ngupas enggau ngelansa sentang antu dalam budaya raban bansa Iban ti disidi nengah pansik librari tang penulis ngarapka mayuh agi raban bansa Iban tauka orang bukai betungkapka pekara tu enggau lenak agi jemah ila.



Pantang /Kalingai/Tatu

Keterubah iya orang Iban bepantang kelia ngambika sida iya sebulu enggau nabau tauka engkuli. Nitihka jerita, dalam pengarap lama Iban endang segulai sejalai enggau bala antu. Siti ari tanda Iban endang segulai sejalai enggau nabau nya ari ensera Keling Gerasi Nading, Bujang Berani Kempang. Keling tu kenu ku jerita endang purih nabau. Aki iya benama Tambai Chiri Aka Ati Nabau Besirang. Nya alai sida Keling tu ke bendar purih ular tauka nabau. Nyadi kelia Iban nitihka ensera endang berimbai pendiau enggau sida Keling. Ngembuan pantang baka tu nyadika peninding tauka pagar diri ari kachau utai tauka sebarang penyakit.



The tattoos on the back (Ketam Itit/Ketupong) represent the back of the crab, the tattoos on the arms (Ketam Lengan)represent the arms of the crab. A crabs shell is a hard armor, which protects its wearer.