Types of Iban Gawai

Background of Gawai Burong

Gawai Burong, celebrated to honour the War God Sengalang Burong, is one of the greatest of all Iban festivals or ceremonies and was first celebrated by Sera Gunting himself on his return from this grandfather longhouse.

The other festivals of bird rituals, by order of importance and expense, includes Gawai Mata, Enchaboh Arong, Gawai Kenyalang and Gawai Burong with the latter being celebrated in nine ascending stages known as:

1)Â Gawai Kalingkang
2)Â Gawai Sandong
3)Â Gawai Sawi
4)Â Gawai Salangking
5)Â Gawai Mulong Merangau or Lemba Bumbun
6)Â Gawai Gajah Meram
7)Â Gawai Meligai
8)Â Gawai Ranyai or Mudur Ruruh
9)Â Gawai Gerasi Papa

For each stage of the gawai burong, a different pole called tiang chandi is built, on which the statue of hornbill is placed during the gawai feasts.

Similarly the chants by the lemambang vary for each stage, but the ceremony, on the whole, maintains basic outlines except that each concludes with a different line of verse.

Here, we will briefly describe other Iban festivals and its order of its importance so as to better understand the significance of Gawai Burong in the Iban society.

Gawai Mata is a small ceremony (implicit in its name for mata which literally means unripen) that may be performed by any warrior who received instructions in a dream to make food offering to his guardian spirit (orang Panggau or other guardian spirits like Enting Naing). It is also held as curing ceremony for the sick. No bard is required to recite chants; one piglet is used as sacrifice, food is served for the guest, spirit and human alike, only once. Guest is usually from same longhouse or just a selected few close relatives from neighbouring longhouses.

Enchaboh Arong is formerly performed to receive a newly taken head into the longhouse and is sponsored by anyone who has taken an enemy head or killed an enemy in war or battle. A piglet is sacrificed to provide an offerings and food served to the human guest and spirit alike similar to Gawai mata.

Gawai Kenyalang, like Gawai Burong, is a big ceremony, involving bards, cock fight, many sacrificial pigs, brewing of tuak with invitations extend to surrounding longhouses and with preparation period of a farming season (umai bedandang). This gawai should only be sponsored by an outstanding warleader or his descendant, and should not be given by a young man, for fear it will shorten his life. The sponsor decides to perform the ritual as proof of his greatness and not necessarily from instructions received in dreams. The centrepiece of this gawai is an elaborate rhinoceros hornbill statue mounted on the towering pole called tiang chandi at the climax of the festival.

Traditionally, only warriors who has killed an enemy was allowed to fell the tree used to construct the hornbill statue without fear of supernatural repercussions. Similarly, a warrior who has killed numerous enemies on a single expedition should cut the piece of wood used to construct the hornbill’s beak. This rule have been modified in modern times with the role of the warriors being taken over by senior men of respected positions.

The statue in the form of the Kenyalang becomes sacred after it has been consecrated in a Gawai Kenyalang ceremony. Old statue are placed and stored in the longhouse loft and are brought for in display on top of tiang chandi on another bird festival to receive the offerings. The Kenyalang bird is thought to represent the chief of worldly birds and it is used to welcome the god of the augural birds, Sengalang Burong, to the feast and celebration of humankind.

Before Sera Gunting celebrated the Gawai Burong proper in stages, he performed the first stage of the gawai called Enchaboh Arong to celebrate the spoils of war (a jar and a gong) he brought home and to commemorate the first three heads he obtained in a war expedition with his uncles when he was visiting Sengalang Burong longhouse.

http://jamesjg.com/general/background-of-gawai-burong

One thought on “Types of Iban Gawai

  1. uwa1971 Post author

    http://dayakibanworld.blogspot.com/2013/01/leman-gawai-ti-dikereja-bala-iban.html

    Thursday, January 17, 2013

    LEMAN GAWAI TI DIKEREJA BALA IBAN

    Iban begawai laban bisi utai deka dipinta ari Petara tauka tegal deka meri terima kasih ngagai Petara. Tang enti orang rami ngapa, nya dikumbai orang makai di ruai.

    Gawai tau dibagi ngagai tiga iti bidang:

    1 . Gawai Antu – dikena ngintu orang ti udah mati.

    2. Gawai ngagai Pulang Gana enggau Sengalang Burung – dalam gawai tu orang minta utai ari
    Petara ngena piring.

    3. Gawai bukai – baka ngintu mimpi; meri terima kasih ngagai Petara laban udah bulih utai berega baka tajau tauka udah niki pangkat dalam kereja tauka laban udah gerai ari penyakit.

    1. Gawai Antu – Gawai tu dikena ngujungka kitai ngulit ka orang ti udah mati.

    Berantu tauka Ngambi Sabayan ngabang – Gawai to dikena ngambi orang ari Sebayan ngabang. Tu ketungkah iya kitai begulai enggau sida Sebayan.

    Gawai tu dikereja sehari semalam. Pagi hari nyadi tua sabak nyabak bebuah berayun dalam bilik orang ti bisi antu. Bala indu ninga ke iya nyabak. Sida ti lelaki kiruh di ruai.

    Lebuh hari nyau lemai terunji deka malam, ayun tua sabak lalu dipindah ke ruai. Iya lalu nyabak datai ke dinihari. Ma orang ti diperantu lalu diisi enggau gari sereta enggau perengka ti dikena iya lebuh iya agi idup suba. Utai dipakai mega diisi dalam lanji nya. Utai dipakai mega diayan semak ma nya.

    Udah makai lemai orang lalu ngetas ulit. Maya tu semua orang ti ngulit lalu ngena baju ti bechura piam ti patut dikena orang ngulit. Indu ngena kain kanggan tauka baju putih sereta ngena tina chelum ti digaga ari rutan. Lelaki ngena sirat tauka pekayan nadai bechura tampak.

    Orang ti pandai nyampi lalu nyebut Sampi Ngetas Ulit.

    Sida ti deka ngetas ulit lalu betusun lalu bejalai niti ruai. Udah nya orang ti benama tauka orang ti udah bedengah lalu netak mimit iku sirat orang lelaki lalu ngerat tina sida ti indu.

    Udah nya buk sida lalu diguntin mimit; kening enggau buk diberi minyak lalu disugu; darah manuk dilut di jari sida lalu gari manah lalu dikena. Udah nya semalam nya orang lalu rami, ngirup, makai.

    Pagi siti, ma ti udah diisi enggau perengka ti dikena iya maya iya agi idup suba lalu dianjung ngagai pendam. Utai dipakai baka jani, manuk, asi pulut enggau penganan mega disimpan dalam ma nya. Beliung enggau kapak mega diengkah dia. Utai tu dikumbai baiya. Enti orang ti mati nya indu, pekekas indu mega diberika baiya iya. Timpa enggau raga ti bekeremit ti dianyam maya ngentupat puang mega lalu dibai ngagai pendam. Kadang-kadang sungkup mega digaga di atas pendam sida.
    .
    2. Siti agi gawai ianya empat iti ti dituju ngagai Pulang Gana ti Petara tanah. Iya diau dalam tanah.

    Semua gawai tu bekait enggau bumai sereta minta saup Pulang Gana ngasuh pengawa bumai sida mujur. Dalam semua gawai tu orang ngambi lemambang mengap – siku matak jalai, siku penimbal lalu dua iku ngelembung. Orang ti matak jalai, nusi pejalai bala Petara ti ngusung orang ti begawai. Iya ti nimbal nya ngasuh pengap iya ti matak jalai nya nenak agi lalu iya bisi chukup penemu nukar iya ti matak jalai nya lebuh siku nya nyau lelak. Seduai ti ngelambung nya mega ngemanahka leka pengap lalu kadang-kadang sida beramban. Ramban sida nambah ke reti enggau pemisa pengap. Tang kadang-kadang sida beramban nundi orang indu ti bisi ninga ke sida ngambika orang ketawa lalu enda tinduk. Orang bukai ti nemu beramban tau minta tungkat ari seduai tu lalu nimbal ramban seduai iya. Kadang-kadang, bala indu ti kena tinggang ramban sida ti lelaki ngerampas tungkat lalu beramban nimbal sida ti lelaki. Tu ti suah ngasuh bala pengabang tachuh ketawa lalu enda tinduk.

    Udah pengap embih, udah bala Petara datai, jani lalu disugu lalu dibunuh lalu atau jani nya lalu dibacha. Enti atau nya jai, orang lalu mengap baru lalu munuh jani siku da. Pemanjai pengap bepanggai enggau penyuah orang nya udah begawai. Enti iya enda kala begawai, pengap orang semina naka ngalu Petara tang enti sema iya udah bisi empat kali udah begawai tauka udah bedengah pala munsuh empat igi, pengap tau datai ba nugal Enti iya kaya, bepemandai lalu beberita tauka udah bulih pala bepuluh igi, iya ti begawai tau ngasuh orang mengap dataika nempalai kasai.

    Gawai ti bisi bekait enggau Pulang Gana ianya baka ti di baruh tu:

    (i) Gawai mandi rumah, mangkong tiang, tauka muai rumah . . . .
    Pengawa ngerami rumah baru. Minta Petara merekatka rumah baru awakka rumah nya chelap lindap lalu orang ti diau dia betuah belimpah, gayu ratu, gerai nyamai sereta lantang senang.

    (ii) Gawai Batu . . .
    Gawai tu dikereja maya baru deka bumai. Gawai tu dikereja awakka Petara ngasuh semua utai ti diansah ngena nya tajam dikena nebang, nebas enggau besiang tauka mantun umai ngambika padi ti ulih lalu mayuh sereta bejumbuh.

    (iii) Gawai Benih . . . .
    Gawai tu dikereja sebedau nugal tauka sebedau ngaga chemai. Dalam gawai tu orang minta Petara ngasuh sida mayuh bulih padi, bulih puli awakka sida senang lantang.

    (iv) Gawai Jagu tauka Gawai Ngemali Umai……..
    Enti padi mayuh dipakai ulat, mayuh dipakai empangau, sintak tauka buntak, orang ngereja Gawai Jagu tauka Gawai Ngemali Umai. Dalam Gawai Jagu, orang ngaga dua iku jagu ari tanah lalu dipiring. Dalam leka pengap lemambang, jagu tu bejalai makai semua utai ti ngachau umai lalu ditaban sida ke tasik. Bakanya mega dalam Gawai Ngemali Umai, bala Petara mukat lalu mai bala indu utai nya ke tasik ngena bangkung. Nya meh maya tumu pagi udah tembu pengap, orang ngelepaska perau mit di sungai ti bedampih enggau rumah orang ti begawai. Perau ti dikira mai semua indu utai, semua chit, semua pipit ngagai tasik besai leledung lelinang awakka sida enda ngachau umai agi.

    (v) Gawai nyimpan padi . . . .
    Tu gawai dikena besimpan padi dalam gentung tauka tibang. Padi disimpan maya iya udah dijembi, ditampi enggau udah dikerekai. Maya gawai tu, orang nyimpan padi dalam gentung di atas sadau. Orang ti dikangau datai enggau besimpanka padi nya. Udah tembu besimpan orang siku lalu nyampi awakka padi nya jedian lalu enda nemu kurang.

    Enam iti gawai ti bebesai udah tu mega ngena jalai pengap tang ditujuka Sengalang Burung, ti Petara di langit. Semua gawai tu mega bekait enggau pengawa ngayau.

    (vi) Gawai Burung tauka nikau ka Burung . . . .
    Gawai tu dikereja awakka orang ti nirika gawai betuah lalu bulih mayuh pala munsuh tauka bulih mayuh ulun lebuh iya nurun ngayau.

    (vii) Gawai Enchabuh Arung . . . .
    Gawai tu didirika lebuh orang ti udah pulai ngayau lalu udah bisi bulih pala munsuh. Gawai tu mega dikena naku sereta ngantung antu pala dalam ringka gantung.

    (viii) Gawai Kenyalang tauka Bekenyalang or Gawai Tras . . . .
    Kenyalang ti udah diukir, udah diraut, udah dichat diengkah di atas tiang sandung merenung tunga ngagai menua munsuh awakka iya mantuk mata bala munsuh lalu nyamai dialahka kitai.

    (ix) Gawai Ijuk tauka Ijuk Pumpong tauka Sandau Liau . . . .
    Enti orang nya udah Gawai Kenyalang empat lima kali, lalu mega udah ngalahka bala munsuh, iya tau nirika gawai tu. Dalam gawai tu ai tuak diengkahka di atas tiang sandung

    (x) Gawai Gajah tauka Begajah . . . .
    Gawai tu dikereja tuai ti jelai nama, jelai berita ti udah mayuh bulih antu pala. Gawai tu mega dikena masa semua antu pala ti udah ulih iya. Laban gawai tu gawai ti pemadu tinggi, enti orang nya udah nirika gawai tu, iya enda ibuh begawai agi enti sema iya bisi ngayau baru lalu bulih antu pala baru. Gawai Gajah tu jarang bendar dikereja. Ke penudi iya dikereja kira dalam taun 1920 ulih Iban Skrang penama Ginching ti diau di Undup. Dalam gawai tu, kayu ti udah diraut nyadi gajah diengkah di atas tiang sandung ti tinggi.

    (xi) Gawai ranyai taukar Beranyai . . . .
    Tu gawai ti pemadu besai kala dikereja bala Iban. Dalam gawai tu, semua pala munsuh ti udah ulih orang diengkah dalam chapan. Mayuh macham sangkuh digantung ngelingi chapan nya. Orang siku ti bengepan lalu mega udah bedengah duduk ngimpai chapan nya. Udah nya siku orang ti bengepan lalu ngena nyabur iya ngetas semua tali temeran enggau tali rutan ti dikena ngantung sangkuh dia awakka semua sangkuh teberubuh ngelingi orang ti duduk nyendi chapan ti endur antu pala melunggu nya tadi.

    3. Kelimpah ari ti udah dipejuraika di atas, agi mega bisi gawai ti enda bangat berat.

    Gawai bansa tu ianya gawai ti diintu lebuh orang bisi mimpi jai; ninga burung jai, tauka rumah bisi ditiki burung jai; ngintu diri lebuh baru udah gerai ari penyakit ti lama ngenusah; ngerami tuah ti manah laban udah chukup pemisi dikena meli tajau laban dalam pengarap Iban, tajau bisi semengat ti tau ngemata sereta nulung kitai.

    Reply

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s