Nama bida antara Gawai Burong (GB) ngau Gawai Kenyalang (GK)? Ulih nuan nerang ngau silik agi kini?
What is the difference between Gawai Kenylang and Gawai Burong? When to hold which?
1) Which one should be celebrated first i.e. GK or GB
By order of importance and expense stated above, Gawai Kenyalang (GK) comes before Gawai Burong (GB).
So is GK really below GB in terms of importance and expense?
Should GK be celebrated first before GB and after Enchaboh Arong?
2) What is the purpose of GK and GB respectively?
It stated that GK is celebrated to show greatness as here:
This gawai should only be sponsored by an outstanding warleader or his descendant, and should not be given by a young man, for fear it will shorten his life. The sponsor decides to perform the ritual as proof of his greatness and not necessarily from instructions received in dreams. The centrepiece of this gawai is an elaborate rhinoceros hornbill statue mounted on the towering pole called tiang chandi at the climax of the festival.
This purpose of GK appears meant to celebrate outstanding performance or success, is it not?
Meanwhile, it seems the purpose of GB is to seek divine blessings from Singalang Burong before embarking on major high risk ventures as per your reply here:
If you wish to embark on a major high risk venture (eg. warfare or enhance your tribe political status, territory, reputation, individual prestige), gawai burong is the ritual to seek devine blessing form”God of War”. The Iban system of augury using omen bird, which was taught by the “God of War” himself is used as guide to predict success or failure of such venture and also our daily activities (farming, fishing, hunting, gathering fruits, travelling, etc).
So, if the purpose of GB is to seek blessings before going on a major venture, should it be celebrated first before GK which is to celebrate outstanding performance and to show greatness?
So, I am quite confused with the sequence and the purpose of these two gawai’s i.e. which one should be celebrated first?
3) Is the role and use of the kenyalang statue different in each gawai?
In GK, a statue of kenyalang is mounted on a tiang chandi for 7 days directed towards the enemy’s country:
The Posts are in place and the spirits of the Hornbills are ready to take messages to the upperworld. In former days, these same bird spirits would attack and weaken enemy villages in preparation for headhunting raids.
The Kenyalang statue becomes sacred after it has been consecrated in a Gawai Kenyalang ceremony. Old statues are placed and stored in the longhouse loft (sadau) and are brought out for display on top of Tiang Chandi on another bird festival to receive the offerings. This Kenyalang bird statue is thought to represent the chief of worldly birds and it is used to welcome the god of the augural birds, Sengalang Burong, to the feast and celebrations of humankind.
In GB, the kenyalang statue is brought down from sadau by Lemambang to join in the celebration but put back to sadau after finish and no mention of mounting a kenyalang statue on the tiang chandi in GB as stated here:
The bard will then come out to the tanju carrying the host longhouse smoked skulls and start chanting rituals song for the skull. After finished with this, the host rhinoceros hornbill statue is brought out together with the skulls brought by the guest to the tanju accompanied by bards who will chant the ritual song (timang Kenyalang) for the hornbill statue. After finished chanting their ritual songs, the bards then place the hornbill statue and the skulls at the foot of the ritual pole.
After the bards have finished chanting their ritual songs, the feast chief waves a rooster along the gallery to announce that the feast has ended. Their respective owners have returned all skulls presented during the festival to their former places, and the hornbill statue returned to their honourable place at their owner’s loft for reuse in future.
4) What does the kenyalang statue really represent in each gawai?
Is the purpose of the hornbill statue in GK rightly stated in this abstract about the Kenyalang statue written by UNIMAS?
Semasa ritual Gawai Kenyalang, patung burung kenyalang dijampi supaya kuasa ghaib atau kuasa luar biasa masuk ke dalam patung itu.
Kemudian patung tersebut diarak di sepanjang ruai rumah panjang untuk dijampi dengan lagu mentera menjemput dewa-dewi yang berada di alam ghaib untuk datang ke ritual berkenaan.
Tujuan jemputan itu ialah supaya mereka datang membawa berkat untuk memudahkan rezeki dan juga untuk melindungkan penghuni rumah panjang berkenaan dari segala bahaya.
Pada zaman dahulu ritual Gawai Kenyalang mempunyai kaitan dengan aktiviti ngayau (headhunting). Setelah ngayau tidak dilakukan lagi maka ritual Gawai Kenyalang hanya digunakan untuk mendapat berkat.
So, the symbol of the hornbill is more than to welcome Sengalang Burong as stated here:
This Kenyalang bird statue is thought to represent the chief of worldly birds and it is used to welcome the god of the augural birds, Sengalang Burong, to the feast and celebrations of humankind.
Also, another role of the hornbill statue is stated here, is it true?
In former days, these same bird spirits would attack and weaken enemy villages in preparation for headhunting raids.
In this reference, the hornbill bird is stated as the bird of prophesy as follows:
To the Iban peoples of Borneo, the hornbill is known as a bird of prophecy. At the Gawai Kenyalang, greatest of all Iban festivals, many carved and painted hornbill figures are raised on tall poles. Perched on high, the spirits of the hornbill are ready to take messages from the human world to the upperworld, the world of spirits.
4) Is it true in the old days, tiang chandi for GK is digenselan ngena nyawa ulun? I read in internet as follows:
After hours of incantations, recited only by priests, the Hornbill is brought outside and attached to a post. The post hole was sanctified by the blood of a sacrificial animal. In the past, the body of a slave or captive would have been used.
While in GB, its tiang chandi is digenselan ngena babi sengajap as stated here:
A noble warrior then kills a medium-size pig (babi sengajap), whose blood is smeared on the ritual pole (the tiang chandi or the kalingkang pole for the first stage of Gawai Burong), which will be erected at the centre of the tanju.
5) Is the arrangement of activities basically the same for both GK and GB?
The arrangement for activity for GB is clearly listed above.
Gawai Kenyalang, like Gawai Burong, is a big ceremony, involving bards, cock fight, many sacrificial pigs, brewing of tuak with invitations extend to surrounding longhouses and with preparation period of a farming season (umai bedandang).
6) Is the leka pengap or timang the same for GK and GB?
7) There is a difference between GB and GK said by rengayungmiri in Youtube as follows (after edited for clarity):
rengayungmiri 1 year ago
Gawai burung gawai burung ga. Gawai kenyalang lain agi, gawai pemadu tinggi ba pelilih menua lama (Lubuk Antu, Engkelili, Batang Ai ngau Lemanak). Gawai kenyalang diintu 7 ari 7 malam, ari ke 8 endur niri ka sandung kenyalang. Gawai burung diintu bala tunga ka Batang Layar ngau Batang Saribas.
8) Why GK was not mentioned in the list of four Iban gawai types by Dr. Masing and only Gawai Amat (Burong) was mentioned as below?
The Ibans still hold various religious ceremonies to appease the spirits, says Dr. Masing, who has studied Iban mythology. He says that in the old days the gawai amat ritual (also called gawai burong) was held to ask the spirits for success in warfare and headhunting.
Dr. Masing says there are four types of gawai in Iban culture, starting with the gawai antu. The second type of gawai includes gawai batu (whetstone ritual), gawai benih (seedling ritual) which is held before clearing of farm land, and gawai nyimpan padi (storing of padi rites) which is held after harvesting.
The third type is simply called gawai. It is held when something unusual takes place, for example, if a longhouse member has a dream or someone wants to thank the spirits after recovering from an illness.
The fourth is called gawai amat (named so by Ibans in Baleh district) or gawai burong (original name from the Saribas and Batang Lupar area). Under this category there are nine types of ritual starting with the biggest one called gawai kenyalang (hornbill rites).
(Qouted from: http://www.wowasis.com/travelblog/?p=1216)
9. 9. There seems to be a suggestion or inclination or tendency to equate between the two types of gawai like in this Leka Main PhD thesis like in bracketing them as Gawai Burong (Gawai Kenyalang) below:
Kaum Iban amat unik dan kaya dengan adat dan kebudayaan yang tersendiri.Oleh demikian terdapat pelbagai perayaan yang merupakan upacara pemujaan untuk menyampaikan niat, memohon kebaikan dan berdoa kepada petara. Perayaan-perayaan ini dikenali dengan berbagai-bagai nama seperti Gawai Batu, Gawai Burong (Gawai Kenyalang), Gawai Rumah Baru (Gawai Mangkong Tiang), Gawai Nama Ke Tajau, Gawai Antu, Gawai Ngemali Umai dan lain-lain seumpamanya.
Gawai Kenyalang (Gawai Burong) diadakan sebagai penghormatan kepada Singalang Burong iaitu tuhan perang bagi masyarakat Iban tradisional (Sandin, 1977). Asal usul perayaan ini dikaitkan dengan kepercayaan tentang Aki Lang Sengalang Burong Jagu Menaul Tuntung (burung helang) yang ditugaskan oleh petara untuk memimpin segala kerja perang bagi masyarakat Iban kerana beliau memiliki semua jenis pengaroh (azimat). Oleh hal demikian, Gawai Kenyalang bolehlah diadakan semasa atau sebelum ekspedisi ngayau. Ia juga boleh diadakan apabila seseorang pahlawan Iban menerima alamat daripada petara melalui mimpi untuk mengadakannya. Bagaimana pun, Gawai Kenyalang boleh diadakan sebaik sahaja seseorang Iban pulang daripada bejalai (mengembara) setelah memperoleh pendapatan lumayan atau barang yang berharga. Lazimnya upacara perayaan dijalankan di tanju (kawasan di luar ruai) kerana Singalang Burong dipercayai akan datang dan duduk bersama-sama dengan mereka semasa makan dan minum di sana. Unquote
Nyadi, enti gawai 2 iti tu enda sebaka, ni patut didirike dulu or when to hold a GK or GB?