Definisi zikir (pengap), puisi dan prosa (poetry vs prose)

Pengap is said to zikir in Leka Main (Puisi Rakyat Iban). So I check on its meaning as follows:

Zikir
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dikir is the chanting of the greatness of God (Allah) not a song.

Dikir Barat is an Eastern (?) Malaysian traditional style of performance which is a call and response type of performance often accompanied by the rebana (wooden hand drum) and gongs.

(As I know Dikir Barat belongs to West Malaysia (formerly Malaya) especially in the eastern states, not East Malaysia which include Sabah and Sarawak (if the writer does not mean to refer to eastern Malaya).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zikir

Sufi Zikir Ceremony

A zikir is a litany formula that usually follows an Islamic prayer, but which can also be practiced at other times. The Arabic word “dhikr,” which literally means “mention,” “remembrance,” “evocation,” or “recollection,” is part of the Malay Indonesian vocabulary, sometimes written as dzikir.

This concept and meditation tool is commonly linked with Sufi practices. Certain words or names of God are repeated as litanies after prayer, in accordance with the Prophet Muhammad’s tradition, or the teachings of Sufi orders.

The most common zikir formulas are “God is holy” (Subhanallah), “All praise to God” (Alhamdulillah), “God is most great” (Allahuakbar), and “There is no god but God” (Lailaha-illallah), repeated in either a low or a high voice.

Puisi
Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Langsung ke: navigasi, cari

Puisi (dari bahasa Yunani kuno: ποιέω/ποιῶ (poiéo/poió) = I create) adalah seni tertulis di mana bahasa digunakan untuk kualitas estetiknya untuk tambahan, atau selain arti semantiknya.

Penekanan pada segi estetik suatu bahasa dan penggunaan sengaja pengulangan, meter dan rima adalah yang membedakan puisi dari prosa.

Namun perbedaan ini masih diperdebatkan.

Beberapa ahli modern memiliki pendekatan dengan mendefinisikan puisi tidak sebagai jenis literatur tapi sebagai perwujudan imajinasi manusia, yang menjadi sumber segala kreativitas.

Selain itu puisi juga merupakan curahan isi hati seseorang yang membawa orang lain ke dalam keadaan hatinya.

Baris-baris pada puisi dapat berbentuk apa saja (melingkar, zigzag dan lain-lain). Hal tersebut merupakan salah satu cara penulis untuk menunjukkan pemikirannnya.

Puisi kadang-kadang juga hanya berisi satu kata/suku kata yang terus diulang-ulang. Bagi pembaca hal tersebut mungkin membuat puisi tersebut menjadi tidak dimengerti.

Tapi penulis selalu memiliki alasan untuk segala ‘keanehan’ yang diciptakannya. Tak ada yang membatasi keinginan penulis dalam menciptakan sebuah puisi.

Ada beberapa perbedaan antara puisi lama dan puisi baru.

Namun beberapa kasus mengenai puisi modern atau puisi cyber belakangan ini makin memprihatinkan jika ditilik dari pokok dan kaidah puisi itu sendiri yaitu ‘pemadatan kata’.

Kebanyakan penyair aktif sekarang baik pemula ataupun bukan lebih mementingkan gaya bahasa dan bukan pada pokok puisi tersebut.

Di dalam puisi juga biasa disisipkan majas yang membuat puisi itu semakin indah. Majas tersebut juga ada bemacam, salah satunya adalah sarkasme yaitu sindiran langsung dengan kasar.

Di beberapa daerah di Indonesia puisi juga sering dinyanyikan dalam bentuk pantun. Mereka enggan atau tak mau untuk melihat kaidah awal puisi tersebut.

1 Hal-hal Membaca Puisi
2 Unsur-unsur puisi
2.1 Struktur Fisik Puisi
2.2 Struktur Batin Puisi
3 Jenis-Jenis Puisi
3.1 Puisi Lama
3.2 Puisi Baru
3.3 Puisi Kontemporer
4 Pranala Luar
5 Lihat pula

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puisi

Prosa
Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Prosa adalah suatu jenis tulisan yang dibedakan dengan puisi karena variasi ritme (rhythm) yang dimilikinya lebih besar serta bahasanya yang lebih sesuai dengan arti leksikalnya.

Kata prosa berasal dari bahasa Latin “prosa” yang artinya “terus terang”.

Jenis tulisan prosa biasanya digunakan untuk mendeskripsikan suatu fakta atau ide.

Karenanya, prosa dapat digunakan untuk surat kabar, majalah, novel, ensiklopedia, surat, serta berbagai jenis media lainnya.

Prosa juga dibagi dalam dua bagian, yaitu prosa lama dan prosa baru.

Prosa lama adalah prosa bahasa indonesia yang belum terpengaruhi budaya barat dan prosa baru ialah prosa yang dikarang bebas tanpa aturan apa pun.

1 Jenis-jenis prosa
2 Prosa Lama
2.1 Hikayat
2.2 Sejarah
2.3 Kisah
2.4 Dongeng
2.5 Cerita Berbingkai
3 Bentuk-bentuk prosa baru
3.1 Roman
3.2 Novel
3.3 Cerpen
3.4 Riwayat
3.5 Kritik
3.6 Resensi
3.7 Esai

Jenis-jenis prosa

Prosa biasanya dibagi menjadi empat jenis:

Prosa naratif
Prosa deskriptif
Prosa eksposisi
Prosa argumentatif

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prosa

Poetry

Poetry (from the Greek poiesis — ποίησις — with a broad meaning of a “making”, seen also in such terms as “hemopoiesis”; more narrowly, the making of poetry) is a form of literary art which uses aesthetic and rhythmic[1][2][3] qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

Verse (poetry)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A verse is formally a single metrical line in a poetic composition.

However, verse has come to represent any division or grouping of words in a poetic composition, with groupings traditionally having been referred to as stanzas.

Moreover, verse has also been a traditional application in drama, which is therefore known as dramatic poetry, verse drama, or dramatic verse.

The word “verse” is commonly, though incorrectly, used in lieu of “poetry” to distinguish it from prose.

Where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme, the common unit of prose is purely grammatical, such as a sentence or paragraph.[1]

Prose poems and free verse, though poetry, are not verse, because they exhibit no regular patterns of rhythm.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verse_%28poetry%29

Prose
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Prose is a form of language which applies ordinary grammatical structure and natural flow of speech rather than rhythmic structure (as in traditional poetry).

While there are critical debates on the construction of prose, its simplicity and loosely defined structure has led to its adoption for the majority of spoken dialogue, factual discourse as well as topical and fictional writing.

It is commonly used, for example, in literature, newspapers, magazines, encyclopedias, broadcasting, film, history, philosophy, law and many other forms of communication.

Structure

Novels, essays, short stories, and works of criticism are examples of prose. Other examples include: comedy, drama, fable, fiction, folk tale, hagiography, legend, literature, myth, narrative, saga, science fiction, story, theme, tragedy.

Prose lacks the more formal metrical structure of verse that is almost always found in traditional poetry.

Poems often involve a meter and/or rhyme scheme. Prose, instead, comprises full, grammatical sentences, which then constitute paragraphs and overlook aesthetic appeal.

Some works of prose do contain traces of metrical structure or versification and a conscious blend of the two literature formats is known as prose poetry.

Similarly, any work of verse with fewer rules and restrictions is known as free verse.

Verse is considered to be more systematic or formulaic, whereas prose is the most reflective of ordinary (often conversational) speech.

On this point Samuel Taylor Coleridge requested, jokingly, that novice poets should know the “definitions of prose and poetry; that is, prose,—words in their best order; poetry,—the best words in their best order.”[1]

In Molière’s play Le Bourgeois gentilhomme, Monsieur Jourdain asked for something to be written in neither verse nor prose.

A philosophy master replied that “there is no other way to express oneself than with prose or verse,” for the simple reason being that “everything that is not prose is verse, and everything that is not verse is prose.”[2]

“So, concerning the mentioned definition, we can say that “thinking is translating ‘prosaic-ideas’ without accessories” since ideas (in brain) do not follow any metrical composition.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prose

Literature
Major forms

Novel
Poem
Drama

Short story
Novella

Genres

Comedy
Drama
Epic

Erotic
Nonsense
Lyric

Mythopoeia
Romance
Satire

Tragedy
Tragicomedy

Media

Performance (play)
Book

Techniques

Prose
Verse

Timang is said to be invocation whose meaning is described below:

Invocation
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about religious and spiritual invocation.

An invocation (from the Latin verb invocare “to call on, invoke, to give”) may take the form of:
Invocation by Gustave Doré.

Supplication, prayer or spell.
A form of possession.
Command or conjuration.
Self-identification with certain spirits.

These forms are described below, but are not mutually exclusive. See also Theurgy.
Contents

1 Supplication or prayer
1.1 As alternative to prayer
2 A form of possession
3 Command or conjuration
4 Self-identification with certain spirits
5 References
6 External links

[edit] Supplication or prayer

As a supplication or prayer it implies to call upon God, a god or goddess, a person, etc. When a person calls upon God, a god, or goddess to ask for something (protection, a favour, his/her spiritual presence in a ceremony, etc.) or simply for worship, this can be done in a pre-established form or with the invoker’s own words or actions. An example of a pre-established text for an invocation is the Lord’s Prayer.

All religions in general use invoking prayers, liturgies, or hymns; see for example the mantras in Hinduism and Buddhism, the Egyptian Coming Out by Day (aka Book of the Dead), the Orphic Hymns and the many texts, still preserved, written in cuneiform characters on clay tablets, addressed to Shamash, Ishtar, and other deities.
[edit] As alternative to prayer

An invocation can also be a secular alternative to a prayer. On August 30, 2012, Dan Nerren, a member of the Humanist Association of Tulsa, delivered a secular invocation to open a meeting of the City Council of Tulsa.[1] Nerren was invited to perform the invocation as a compromise following a long-running dispute with the City Council over prayers opening meetings. The invocation was written by Andrew Lovley, a member of the Southern Maine Association of Secular Humanists who had previously used the invocation in 2009 to invoke an inauguration ceremony for new city officials in South Portland, Maine.[2]

In this usage, it is comparable to an affirmation as an alternative for those who conscientiously object to taking oaths of any kind, be it for reasons of belief or non-belief.
[edit] A form of possession

The word “possession” is used here in its neutral form to mean “a state (potentially psychological) in which an individual’s normal personality is replaced by another”. This is also sometimes known as ‘aspecting’. This can be done as a means of communicating with or getting closer to a deity or spirit and as such need not be viewed synonymously with demonic possession.

In some religious traditions including Paganism, Shamanism and Wicca, “invocation” means to draw a spirit or Spirit force into ones own body and is differentiated from “evocation”, which involves asking a spirit or force to become present at a given location. Again, Crowley states that

To “invoke” is to “call in”, just as to “evoke” is to “call forth”. This is the essential difference between the two branches of Magick. In invocation, the macrocosm floods the consciousness. In evocation, the magician, having become the macrocosm, creates a microcosm.[3]

Possessive invocation may be attempted singly or, as is often the case in Wicca, in pairs – with one person doing the invocation (reciting the liturgy or prayers and acting as anchor), and the other person being invoked (allowing themselves to become a vessel for the spirit or deity). The person successfully invoked may be moved to speak or act in non-characteristic ways, acting as the deity or spirit; and they may lose all or some self-awareness while doing so. A communication might also be given via imagery (a religious vision). They may also be led to recite a text in the manner of that deity, in which case the invocation is more akin to ritual drama. The Wiccan Charge of the Goddess is an example of such a pre-established recitation. See also the ritual of Drawing Down the Moon.

The ecstatic, possessory form of invocation may be compared to loa possession in the Vodou tradition where devotees are described as being “ridden” or “mounted” by the deity or spirit. In 1995 National Geographic journalist Carol Beckwith described events she had witnessed during Vodoun possessions:

A woman splashed sand into her eyes, a man cut his belly with shards of glass but did not bleed, another swallowed fire. Nearby a believer, perhaps a yam farmer or fisherman, heated hand-wrought knives in crackling flames. Then another man brought one of the knives to his tongue. We cringed at the sight and were dumbfounded when, after several repetitions, his tongue had not even reddened.[4]

Possessive invocation has also been described in certain Norse rites where Odin is invoked to “ride” workers of seidr (Norse shamanism), much like the god rides his eight-legged horse Sleipnir. Indeed, forms of possessive invocation appear throughout the world in most mystical or ecstatic traditions, wherever devotees seek to touch upon the essence of a deity or spirit.[5]
[edit] Command or conjuration
Main article: Conjuration

Some have performed invocation for the purpose of controlling or extracting favors from certain spirits or deities. These invocations usually involve a commandment or threat against the entity invoked.

The following is a curious example of such an invocation, found engraved in cuneiform on a statue of the Assyrian demon Pazuzu. Although it seems to constitute an identification with the demon, it was actually considered a protective amulet with the power to command this entity not to harm people or their possessions.[citation needed]

I am Pazuzu, son of the king of the evil spirits, that one who descends impetuously from the mountains and bring the storms. That is the one I am.

Another example is found in the book Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches during the Conjuration of Diana, where the Goddess Diana is evoked into a piece of bread and threatened to grant a wish:

I do not bake the bread, nor with it salt,
Nor do I cook the honey with the wine,
I bake the body and the blood and soul,
The soul of (great) Diana, that she shall
Know neither rest nor peace, and ever be
In cruel suffering till she will grant
What I request, what I do most desire,
I beg it of her from my very heart!
And if the grace be granted, O Diana!
In honour of thee I will hold this feast,
Feast and drain the goblet deep,
We will dance and wildly leap,
And if thou grant’st the grace which I require,
Then when the dance is wildest, all the lamps
Shall be extinguished and we’ll freely love![6]

[edit] Self-identification with certain spirits

Invocation can refer to taking on the qualities of the being invoked, such as the allure of Aphrodite or the ferocity of Kali. In this instance the being is literally called up from within oneself (as an archetype) or into oneself (as an external force), depending on the personal belief system of the invoker. The main difference between this type of invocation and the possessive category described above is that the former may appear more controlled, with self-identification and deity-identification mixed together. In practice, invocations may blend many or all of these categories. See for example this Hymn to Astarte from the Songs of Bilitis, first attributed to a contemporary of Sappho (but actually written by Pierre Louys in the 1890s):

Mother inexhaustible and incorruptible, creatures, born the first, engendered by thyself and by thyself conceived, issue of thyself alone and seeking joy within thyself, Astarte! Oh! Perpetually fertilized, virgin and nurse of all that is, chaste and lascivious, pure and revelling, ineffable, nocturnal, sweet, breather of fire, foam of the sea! Thou who accordest grace in secret, thou who unitest, thou who lovest, thou who seizest with furious desire the multiplied races of savage beasts and couplest the sexes in the wood. Oh, irresistible Astarte! hear me, take me, possess me, oh, Moon! and thirteen times each year draw from my womb the sweet libation of my blood![7]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invocation

Definition of INVOCATION
1
a : the act or process of petitioning for help or support; specifically often capitalized : a prayer of entreaty (as at the beginning of a service of worship)
b : a calling upon for authority or justification
2
: a formula for conjuring : incantation
3
: an act of legal or moral implementation : enforcement
— in·vo·ca·tion·al adjective
— in·voc·a·to·ry adjective
See invocation defined for English-language learners »
See invocation defined for kids »
Examples of INVOCATION

his repeated invocations of the ancient philosophers
justifying his position by invocation of the past
The poem begins with an invocation of the Muses.
They began the meeting with an invocation.

Origin of INVOCATION
Middle English invocacioun, from Middle French & Latin; Middle French invocation, from Latin invocation-, invocatio, from invocare
First Known Use: 14th century

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/invocation

in·vo·ca·tion (nv-kshn)
n.
1. The act or an instance of invoking, especially an appeal to a higher power for assistance.
2. A prayer or other formula used in invoking, as at the opening of a religious service.
3. a. The act of conjuring up a spirit by incantation.

in·vo·ca·tion
[in-vuh-key-shuhn] Show IPA
noun
1. the act of invoking or calling upon a deity, spirit, etc., for aid, protection, inspiration, or the like; supplication.
2. any petitioning or supplication for help or aid.
3. a form of prayer invoking God’s presence, especially one said at the beginning of a religious service or public ceremony.
4. an entreaty for aid and guidance from a Muse, deity, etc., at the beginning of an epic or epiclike poem.
5. the act of calling upon a spirit by incantation.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/invocation

Liturgy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Liturgy (disambiguation).
A Bishop celebrating the Divine Liturgy in an Eastern Catholic Church in Prešov, eastern Slovakia.
Wedding ceremony at Kiuruvesi Church in Kiuruvesi, Finland

Liturgy (Greek: Λειτουργία) is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group, according to its particular traditions.

The word, sometimes rendered by its English translation “service”, may refer to an elaborate formal ritual such as the Eastern Orthodox Divine Liturgy (Greek: Θεία λειτουργία) and Catholic Mass, or a daily activity such as the Muslim Salah[1] and Jewish services. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy is a communal response to the sacred through activity reflecting praise, thanksgiving, supplication, or repentance. Ritualization may be associated with life events such as birth, coming of age, marriage and death. It thus forms the basis for establishing a relationship with a divine agency, as well as with other participants in the liturgy. Methods of dress, preparation of food, application of cosmetics or other hygienic practices are all considered liturgical activities.

Definition of LITURGY
1 often capitalized : a eucharistic rite
2 : a rite or body of rites prescribed for public worship
3 : a customary repertoire of ideas, phrases, or observances
See liturgy defined for English-language learners »
See liturgy defined for kids »
Examples of LITURGY

studying the liturgies of different religions
He was studying Christian liturgy.

Origin of LITURGY
Late Latin liturgia, from Greek leitourgia public service, from Greek (Attic) leïton public building (from Greek laos — Attic leōs — people) + -ourgia -urgy
First Known Use: 1560

lit·ur·gy (ltr-j)
n. pl. lit·ur·gies
1. A prescribed form or set of forms for public religious worship.
2. often Liturgy Christianity The sacrament of the Eucharist.

Hymn
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Hymn (disambiguation).

A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification. The word hymn derives from Greek ὕμνος (hymnos), which means “a song of praise”. Collections of hymns are known as hymnals or hymnbooks.

Definition of HYMN
1
a : a song of praise to God
b : a metrical composition adapted for singing in a religious service
2
: a song of praise or joy
3
: something resembling a hymn : paean
— hymn·like adjective
See hymn defined for English-language learners »
See hymn defined for kids »
Examples of HYMN

sing a hymn of praise

hymn (hm)
n.
1. A song of praise or thanksgiving to God or a deity.
2. A song of praise or joy; a paean.
v. hymned, hymn·ing, hymns
v.tr.
To praise, glorify, or worship in or as if in a hymn.
v.intr.
To sing hymns.

Origins

Ancient hymns include the Egyptian Great Hymn to the Aten, composed by Pharaoh Akhenaten; the Vedas, a collection of hymns in the tradition of Hinduism; and the Psalms, a collection of songs from Judaism. The Western tradition of hymnody begins with the Homeric Hymns, a collection of ancient Greek hymns, the oldest of which were written in the 7th century BC, praising deities of the ancient Greek religions. Surviving from the 3rd century BC is a collection of six literary hymns (Ὕμνοι) by the Alexandrian poet Callimachus.

Patristic writers began applying the term ὕμνος, or hymnus in Latin, to Christian songs of praise, and frequently used the word as a synonym for “psalm”.[1]
Christian hymnody

Originally modeled on the Psalms and other poetic passages (commonly referred to as “canticles”) in the Scriptures, Christian hymns are generally directed as praise to the monotheistic God. Many refer to Jesus Christ either directly or indirectly.

Psalms
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The Book of Psalms (Tiberian: Təhillîm; Modern: Tehillim, תְהִלִּים, or “praises”), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. Some scholars also equate the Zabur with the biblical book of Psalms. Taken together, its 150 poems “express virtually the full range of Israel’s religious faith.”[1]

Definition of PSALM
: a sacred song or poem used in worship; especially : one of the biblical hymns collected in the Book of Psalms
See psalm defined for English-language learners »
See psalm defined for kids »
Examples of PSALM

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