Borneo Sarawak Iban Renung Adat
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Title: Renung Adat
Written in classical Iban.
The book attempts to examine the various forms and texts of renung adat as they are sung in Sibu, Kapit and Betong Divisions of Sarawak, Malaysia.
Renung Adat, a sacred chant, comprises of three categories in Sibu and Kapit Divisions, renung nama’ka tuah, renung ngalu petara and renung sebayan.
Renung Nama’ka Tuah is a song sung during numerous ritual festivals proper (Gawai Amat/Asal)and dream rituals (Gawai Mimpi) for welcoming possessions and riches brought into the family by deities through material manifestations of spiritual blessings.
Renung Ngalu Petara/Antu is for inviting and welcoming deities and the spirits who will visit us during the ritual festivals.
Renung Sebayan is sung during ritual festival for the deads (Ngelumbung). Its purpose is for inviting the spirits of the dead relatives to the feast whereby mourning regulations for the deceased’s family are lifted. The spirits of the deads are expected to give charms for the well-beings of the surviving relatives such as for longevity, prosperity and happiness.
Renung Adat Melah Pinang is used in Betong Division in the celebration of a wedding ceremony.
Scholars of Iban culture must have a copy of this book in their custody, for it will also give them insights into aspects of rites relating to renung adat.
Taken from: http://www.tunjugahfoundation.org.my/index.php/publications/iban/95-leka-timang
(1997) Compiled by Robert Menua Saleh.
Published by The Tun Jugah Foundation.
Paperback, 617 p.
Contains full texts of varieties of ritual incantations. Written in classical Iban. Timang is all about the invitations and arrivals of the principal spirit guests at major ritual festivals proper (Gawai Amat/Asal) and dream rituals (Gawai Mimpi) organized by the Iban who are still observing their traditional beliefs. Symbolically, the lemambang (bard), in his invocations, takes his fellow celebrants and listeners through spirit territory and eventually introduces the principal spirit guests to the festival. The spirit guests are invited to bless the proceedings and to bring benefits on all concerned, conferring charms for so many purposes.
Taken from: http://www.mudah.my/Borneo+Sarawak+Iban+Renung+Adat-20321561.htm
The Ibans still hold various religious ceremonies to appease the spirits, says Dr. Masing, who has studied Iban mythology. He says that in the old days the gawai amat ritual (also called gawai burong) was held to ask the spirits for success in warfare and headhunting.
The fourth is called gawai amat (named so by Ibans in Baleh district) or gawai burong (original name from the Saribas and Batang Lupar area). Under this category there are nine types of ritual starting with the biggest one called gawai kenyalang (hornbill rites).
Taken from: http://www.wowasis.com/travelblog/?p=1216