Iban oral literature

Timang is perhaps the most elaborate and complex form of Iban oral literature. It is performed during major festivals or ritual ceremonies. The nature of the chants depends on the type of timang and each serve specific purposes and has its own ritual significance. There are a few categories of timang such as the following:


Lemambang Tr. Lau ak. Nyanggau

  1. Timang (invocatory chants)
    • Timang Gawai
    • Timang Tuah
    • Timang Benih
    • Timang Seligi
    • Timang Sera
    • Timang Bulu
    • Timang Sukat
    • Timang Panggau
    • Timang Engkuni’
    • Timang Tuchung Taun
    • Timang Jalung
    • Timang Kenyalang


Iban elders in their tradtional costumes during a traditional festival.

Besides timang, there are other forms of Iban oral literatures, as listed below.

  1. Ramban (rhymic songs)
  2. Sabak (dirges)
  3. Pengap (Ritual/invocatory chants)
  4. Pantun (traditional songs)
  5. Sampi/Biau (invocatory prayers/religious supplications)
  6. Berua’ (Shamanic rituals)
  7. Sugi Main and Sugi Sakit (legendary songs for entertainment and healing)
  8. Renung Adat (ritual songs) and Renung Semain (songs of romance)
  9. Pelandai (poetic riddle songs)
  10. Pelian (healing chants)
  11. Ensera (folktales/legends)
  12. Cherita Pandak (short stories)
  13. Naku (ritual songs for head trophies)
  14. http://tercastello.blogspot.com/?zx=87f474a74b19a172

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