Category Archives: Pengarap asal


Friday, June 22, 2012

From the earliest times dreams were regarded as presaging the woes or foretelling the joys or good fortune of mankind. It was looked upon as almost impious to disregard a vision or dream for they were supposed to be sent by the Celestial Power for the guidance of man, and as such belief lingers even now amongst educated persons in civilized countries, how much more should we expect to find it among the uncivilized barbarians. So the lives of the Dyaks are strongly influenced by such hallucinations, dreams being looked upon by them as either the imperative commands of the gods or else warnings sent by them presaging good or evil, and their daily life and pursuits are necessarily guided by them to a great extent.

We look upon a dream as a slight and ill arranged action of the thinking faculties during a state of partial sleep.The dream or thought is merely a momentary impression perfectly natural in its operation, the state of mind which causes it being produced by temporary functional derangement, the stomach being usually more or less out of order, and no dreams can take place during a sound sleep.

The Dyaks affirm that the gods or spirits are instrumental in bringing about dreams and one can only come to the conclusion that they are not aware that they or their imaginations constitute their gods.

The following are instances of the effect of dreams on the Dyaks:—

1. If a medicine man (manang) has a dream ordering him to change his sex he must do so at once as in the case of Manang Bali in the chapter of Manang.

2. It often happens that when Dyaks are accused of theft their defence is that they are the recipients of imperative commands from the gods. Once a man was fined six times for theft and he announced that he intended to steal once more in order to complete the number of times ordered by the gods, as after the last theft he would be a wealthy man.

3. A woman was known to have committed adultery several times, saying that it was not her fault as she was only carrying out the instructions of the gods conveyed to her in dreams, and should she fail to do so she would come to an untimely end or else become a raving lunatic.

4. Newly married couples often divorce as the result of bad dreams, and the same reason is put forward to account for the breaking of engagements or pledges.

5. Cases are known of Christian Dyaks turning apostates and of heathens being converted as the result of dreams.

6. If dreams are often the cause of houses being deserted and of farming lands already cleared being given up. It is not at all rare to hear either a man or woman relating a dream to the effect that the spirits have told them that they are hungry and are in want of food, with the result that the whole house at once organizes a feast with offerings for the spirits.I think that I have said enough to show what effect dreams have on all transactions amongst Dyaks, and though this subject would fill many volumes it is more or less confused, and I may draw my conclusion that the Dyak belief in both dreams and omens is most detrimental to the teaching of Christianity and that it is important to teach them to disregard both of these.

Iban Nampok (Vigil)

NAMPOK (VIGILS) by Revd William Howell

There are two uses for Nampok, one in which the Dyaks seek to be made brave, and the other in order to discover a cure for ailments, and this latter is practised only when the person who is suffering is beyond all human aid. The idea is religious, the person practising it betaking himself to some solitary place on mountains, hills, rivers or even in a cemetery or wherever there is any probability of meeting with the spirits, and before leaving the spirits must be approached with an ample offering. Some unfortunates have been known to have visited a dozen places and yet never had the chance of meeting a single antu or spirit. The undertaking is said to be dangerous and to require considerable pluck and self control; the spirit may either appear in person or else in visions and may take on themselves the forms of animals or reptiles in hideous shapes in order to frighten one.
Should the person give way to fright and run away he suffers death, but if he can control himself he obtains his desire and the spirits finally appear before him in human form bestowing kindly and caressing looks on him.
The offering with which the spirits are approached must needs be stolen from other people and none is allowed to know when a person goes nampok.
A few years ago an old man went nampok in a cemetery. The first night he was unvisited by the spirits but on his second visit the koklir—a ferocious female spirit—appeared and he ran for his life. This man lived for many years after that though the nampok did him no good. It seems difficult to understand how a Dyak can possibly escape harm when going nampok, lying exposed as he does to the elements on the bare ground amongst rocks and stones. Source:

Iban Ritual Textiles by Traude Gavin

Can read a limited number of pages here. Very good details on gawai ngar.

The Women’s Warpath : Iban Rituak Fabrics from Borneo by Traude Gavin

Iban Or Sea Dayak Fabrics and Their Patterns by Charles Hose

Pua: Iban weavings of Sarawak by Edric Ong

Iban art: sexual selection and severed heads : weaving, sculpture, tattooing and other arts of the Iban of Borneo

Ties That Bind: Iban Ikat Weaving by Margaret linggi

The Sarawak Museum Journal – Volume 40, Issue 1 – Page 93

Fragile Traditions: Indonesian Art in Jeopardy – Page 130 by Micheal Happell

Oceania: Art of the Pacific Islands in the Metropolitan … – Page 230
Eric Kjellgren – 2007 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
CEREMONIAL CLOTH (Pua’ kumbu’) Borneo, Malaysia, Sarawak, Iban people Probably 18th century Cotton H. 94% in. … the name “skull basket” is probably a metaphorical reference to what was formerly the most important role of pua’ cloths, …

Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei – Page 76
Charles de Ledesma, ‎Mark Lewis, ‎Pauline Savage – 2003 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions
Unique to Sarawak is pua kumbu (in Iban, “blanket”), a textile whose complex designs … As animists, Orang Asli artists draw upon the natural world – animals, trees, fish, as well as more abstract elements like fire and water – for their imagery.

Sarawak cultural legacy: a living tradition – Page 82
Lucas Chin, ‎Valerie Mashman, ‎Society Atelier Sarawak – 1991 – ‎Snippet view
The motifs woven into the central part of the pua are unique to the time it was woven, and even perhaps to the weaver; they elude contemporary … On the border (anak) are bird motifs, important in Iban thought, as earthly apparitions of spirits, or augurs of omens, mediating between the … Underneath Nising is the final border design of sepit api, three sets of fire tongs, again the metaphor of the creator god …

6th European Conference on Games Based Learning – Page 211
Patrick Felicia – 2012 – ‎Preview
In particular a game-based learning (GBL) platform to promote the Iban culture is being developed. … one of the indigenous inhabitants of the island of Borneo, and can be found in both states of Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysia), and Brunei … five patterned skirts (kain kebat) and five blankets (pua kumbu), all in their original designs (Encyclopaedia of Iban Studies, 2001). … Narrative is not merely a story achieved through analysis and arguments, but through metaphor and connection.

Indonesian weaving between heaven and earth: religious … – Page 7
Itie C. Hout – 1999 – ‎Snippet view
Ikat textiles from the Iban, Borneo Iban ceremonial textiles are known for their intriguing motifs in various tones of beige, reddish and … The majority of the Iban live in longhouses on riverbanks in the interior of Sarawak. … Nowadays, a raid is more a metaphor for acquiring riches, fame and status, instead of enemies’ heads.

International “Ikat” Weaving Forum, Kuching, Sarawak, … – Page 140
1999 – ‎Snippet view
But according to the myth about the start of the ikat technique, Muji Babo’s daughter, Piga Wadu, developped the technique of ikating. She went to the sky … The social structure is often expressed through botanical metaphors. For example the …


Friday, October 26, 2012

(Tusun Ketiga)


Sekeda orang madah ka Pulang Gana tu siku ari tiga tauka lima iku diri menyadi. Hari siti iya lenyau. Udah ngiga iya empat lima hari, bala menyadi iya ngumbai iya nyau mati dipakai antu tauka diempa jelu. Sida lalu ngintu pemati iya lalu ngulit. Keresa iya lalu ditumbak. Siku ari menyadi iya lalu nikau ka sekepuk tanah, madah ka nya bagi Pulang Gana.
Lebuh maya bumai datai, bala menyadi iya lalu nebang. Tang meh pagi siti, sida meda kayu ti udah ditebang nyau bediri baru. Utai ti nyelai baka tu nyadi berari. Nyau enda liat sida menyadi, sida lalu bebai ngemata ka sapa ti bangat beduan sida iya. Lebuh hari udah malam, dia sida meda bala jelu begulai enggau Pulang Gana niri ka kayu ti udah ditebang. Lebuh sida nganu iya, dia Pulang Gana madah ka tanah ending enggi iya lalu enti sida deka beguna ka tanah, sida mesti minta pemendar enggau miring ka iya sebedau berengkah bumai lalu mega begawai udah sida udah ngetau.
Piring nitih ka pemakai asal Iban. Iya belabuh enggau pengawa makai pinang enggau nginsap. Nya alai orang miring belabuh enggau sirih, kapu, pinang enggau sedi. Tembu nya dititih ka semakau enggau ruku. Udah nya baru dikenudi ka piring ti bender baka asi, pulut, garam, tumpi, rendai enggau telu manuk. Piring nya lalu ditata enggau tuak.
Sebedau meri rendai ka dalam piring, suah orang nabur ka rendai ngagai orang ti begelumu dia awak ka sida bulih tuah, bulih limpah ketegal ti meda orang miring dia.
Piring tau digaga ngagai tiga, lima, tujuh tauka sembilan. Reti nya piring dibelah, dipechah tauka dichebik ngagai penyampau ti dikedeka kitai. Tingkat piring tu nitih ka pemesai pengawa ti dikereja, besai agi pengawa, mayuh agi pechah piring.
Nitih ka pansik Padri Howell di Sabu, Simanggang, apai Pulang Gana ti nadai kaki, nadai jari ianya Petara. Anak ti kedua Petara indu tang nadai idung. Iya disimpan Petara dalam perau mit lalu dianyut ka iya. Nama iya Raja Jewata. Iya lalu nyadi raja bala ikan. Anak Petara ti ketiga mega menawa, nadai bisi baka tubuh mensia. Iya digitang di dan kayu lalu nyadi rajang, nyadi orkid. Anak ti keempat nya indu. Iya dipepat Petara lalu nyadi padi, entekai enggau buah bukai. Anak ti kelima lelaki lalu dikumbai Belang Pinggang laban punggung iya belang. Iya lalu nyadi Ini Anda lalu diau di langit. Anak ti keenam nyadi jelu enggau burung. Anak ti ketujuh indu lalu dikumbai Dayang Petri.
Nitih ka siti agi cherita, Pulang Gana dikelakar bala menyadi iya. Sida iya enam iku lelaki lalu siku indu. Nitih ka cherita tu, hari siti Pulang Gana nitih ka landak ti ngachau redas ti alai iya nanam abuk, entekai, jagung enggau sayur bukai. Iya tama lubang di kaki bukit nitih ka landak nya. Nyau ke bangai-utai iya rembus di sepiak bukit nya di menua Samerugah. Dia iya mujur ngubat ulun Samerugah ti tengan sakit. Ka upah, iya diasuh Samerugah milih siku ari anak iya tujuh iku ka bini iya. Iya milih anak Samerugah ti bunsu ti benama Endu Serentum Tanah Tumbuh Yak Serendak Tanggi Buluh. Tang lebuh Pulang datai di menua, bala menyadi iya udah bebagi ka reta. Iya nadai bagi laban sida ngumbai iya udah nyau mati. Lebuh iya minta bagi ka reta, siku menyadi iya lalu ngambi tanah lalu nikau ka tanah nya nuju Pulang Gana. “Nah! Ambi tanah tu. Tu meh bagi dek!” ku menyadi iya nya. Nya meh kebuah Pulang Gana lalu bempu tanah.
Pulang Gana diau dalam tanah dalam Bukit Giling Chiping. Dia meh endur orang ngambi iya lebuh Gawai Batu maya orang deka nebas umai baru. Pulang Gana datai ngabang diserumba bini iya enggau bala anak iya ti benama Benih Lela Punggang Tengian Dara Bintang Tiga Datai ka Jelan; menantu iya Aji Ti Berani Ngilah Bulan Suka Raja Rengayan; dua iku ulun iya ti benama Bengkang Bujang Penyadung enggau Ingkat Apai Renggat Pangkung Tutung. Kedua-kedua seduai tu ending jelu ti diau dalam lubang tanah.
Pulang Gana mega dikangau lebuh nanam lubang pemun maya kitai ngaga rumah. Maya tu siku jani dibunuh ka genselan. Pulang Gana mega dibasa maya kitai niri ka tangga udah rumah kitai nyadi. Lebuh maya kitai niri ka Gawai Mangkung Tiang piring mega diengkah di dapur dikena masa Pulang Gana. Sebedau numbak lubang ka orang ti mati, berau tauka asi mega ditabur di atas tanah nya dikena meli tanah nya ari Pulang gana.

Semerugah Tauka Sebegindah

Semerugah tauka Sebegindah suah disebut begulai enggau Pulang Gana. Kadang-kadamg iya dikumbai Petara. Nya meh kebuah dalam sampi iya disebut Semerugah Raja Tanah tauka Sebegindah Raja Tanah, Sebegindi Raja Ai, Sebegindit Raja Langit.
Semerugah meh Petara ti madah ka Iban enda tentu bulih padi laban sida besebut ka nama mentua. Nya meh kebuah iya madah ka bala Iban enda tau sekali-kali nyebut nama mentua.. Mentua lelaki patut dikangau ka kitai “aya’ tauka ‘bapa”; mentua indu dikumbai ‘ibu’; ipar ti biak dikumbai ‘adi’; ipar ti tuai dikumbai ‘ika’.
Di baruh tu ianya siti agi cherita tuai ti bekait enggau pengarap pasal Pulang Gana.
Posted by dayakibanworld at 2:46 AM


PENGARAP ASAL IBAN (Tipan Kedua) – Sengalang Burong

Saturday, October 20, 2012

(Tipan Kedua)

Sengalang Burung
Sengalang Burung tu Petara ti pemadu dipebasa sereta pemadu tinggi dalam pengarap Iban. Iya Petara ti ngibun sereta nulung Iban lebuh sida ngayau. Iya enda tau alah maya beperang lalu ngena jaku ajih aja tau nyaup kitai ngalah ka munsuh.
Nitih ka siti cherita, mula iya kelia, gawai Iban enda mayuh macham kelebih ari makai enggau ngirup, taja pan sida baru pulai ngayau bulih pala. Hari siti kelia, siku tuai mai bala orang begawai maya bulan kembung. Iya lalu manggil orang ngabang. Lebuh maya nya datai, Sengalang Burung lalu ngajih ka langit petang taja pan maya nya bulan kembung. Pengabang bukai lalu enda ulih datai. Ngena peluang nya, Sengalang enggau bala iya ari langit lalu datai. Orang ti begawai nyau tekenyit meda bala iya enggai niki rumah sida. Sida semina deka niki udah tuai gawai setuju nyedia ka jani ngena ngenselan penatai sida, Sida pengabang dipeda orang lembau amai makai enggau ngirup. Udah nya tuai gawai enggau bini iya lalu luput.Bala manang ti bisi enggau ngabang nyau nuji ngubat seduai iya tang enda ulih. Udah nya orang bukai mega luput. Nyau kelama nya baru bala sida dipuchau Sengalang Burung lalu suman. Dia Sengalang Burung lalu ngajar sida iya madah ka sida enggai ditinggang penusah maya begawai, sida mesti ngenselan bala pengabang enggu darah jani tauka darah manuk; piring mesti udah disedia; lebuh sida ka tanju, keresa mesti chukup; gendang pepat mesti ditabuh; lebuh sida meda iya lebuh iya ngambi gambal burung lang, sida mesti ngetu nempap gendang pepat lalu pulai ka ruai. Udah nya baru gawai tau dikumbai embih. Udah meri jaku ajar, Sengalang burung enggau bala menantu iya lalu mali diri nyadi burung lalu terebai pulai. Iya empu mali diri nyadi lang. Nama Sengalang Burung Endu Sudan Berinjan Bungkong Endu Diu Tiung Menyelung. Nama iya udah ditukar laban lebuh agi biak iya bisi sakit lalu dipemanang. Nama iya lalu ditukar awak ka antu ti medih iya enda ngelala iya agi lalu enda ulih ngachau agi. Nama dulu iya Indai Kechendai Bepantak Jirak Dara Sentaba Balun Kupak.
Tusun anak Sengalang Burung baka tu:
1. Endu Dara Tinchin Temaga Endu Mangkuk Cherebuk China. Iya bini Ketupong.
2. Endu Langgu Ketunsung (bunga raya) Ngembai Dayang Kumang Bunga Entekai. Iya bini Beragai.
3. Endu Kechapah Dulang Midung Endu Kumang Bunga Ketunsung. Iya bini Bejampung.
4. Endu Bentuk Tinchin Pengabas Endu Letan Pulas Mas. Iya bini Pangkas (Kutuk).
5. Endu Kechapang Dulang Mas Iyak Ketupang Bunga Libas. Iya bini Embuas.
6. Endu Mua Puchung Pengabas Pinggai Besai Nadai Meretas. Iya bini Papau (Kelabu).
7. Endu Dara Chempaka Tempurung Alang Endu Langit Dayang Kumang. Mula-mula iya jadi mali enggau Seragunting, anak menyadi iya ti tuai. Udah nya iya nyadi bini Kunding Burung Malam.

Siu Enggau Seragunting
Hari siti Siu mai bala orang bujang di menua iya nyumpit Sidea iya lalu bejalai kediri-kediri. Siu nadai tepeda ka burung siku. Nyau lemai, iya pan datai di pun kara siti. Dia iya meda burung nadai ti ngemayuh nya. Semua macham burung bisi dia. Iya nyumpit menyumpit. Burung nyau betekarak labuh disumpit iya. Lebuh iya pulai, iya lalu tesat. Enda lama iya ninga orang bekechawang. Dia iya nemu enda jauh ari nya bisi rumah panjai. Iya lalu mandi sungai ti enda jauh ari rumah panjai nya. Udah mandi, iya nyelalai ka sumpit enggau burung ti ulih iya dalam babas dia lalu niki. Rumah ti ditiki iya nya sunyi. Orang di ruai nadai siku. Datai di tengah-tengah rumah dia iya bisi meda api. Ari dalam bilik iya ninga orang indu ngangau ka nama iya. Udah nya siku indu ti pemadu bajik pansut mai kandi lalu nanya sekalika iya udah makai.
Siu diau enggau indu nya dia kira dua tiga hari. Lebuh iya pulai, Siu madah ka diri deka mai indu nya. Iya pan deka tang iya ngasuh Siu besemaya enda madah ka orang pasal rumah panjai iya nya lalu mega besemaya enda agi munuh burung tauka megai burung. Iya mega madah ka nama diri Endu Dara Tinchin Temaga Endu Sudan Gelinggam Tinchin Mas. Iya madah ka diri anak Sengalang Burung. Iya mega nerang ka orang nadai bisi di rumah laban semua sida ti lelaki nyau nurun ngayau ngiga pala munsuh dikena nebus ulit laban mayuh amai sida serumah baru udah mati.
Nyau kelama Siu udah begulai enggau bini iya, seduai pan beranak ka anak ti diberi seduai iya nama Seragunting tauka Surong Gunting.
Dalam sekeda cherita, orang ti jadi enggau anak Sengalang Burung tu dikumbai Menggin.
Hari siti lebuh Endu Sudan nyau nyauk ai udah iya ninduk ka Seragunting, Siu dibai orang meda burung ti ulih sumpit orang. Iya pan lalu negu burung dia. Tekala nya Seragunting laly nyerarat-kakat nyabak. Iya enda alah kelimpau ka Siu tang serarih nunjuk tunga ka sungai ti alai indai iya nyauk ai. Nyau kelama Siu lalu nyandik anak iya, mai iya nuju sungai nya. Tang Dara Tinchin Temaga nadai dipeda agi lalu nadai temu. Seragunting nyabak engai bebadu, enggai leleju. Nya ngasuh Siu lalu nitih ka bini iya datai ka hari malam. Malam nya seduai iya tinduk di kampong jerung. Pagi siti dipeda bisi bekal ditinggal ka Dara Tinchin Temaga ka seduai iya. Iya mega bisi ninggal ka ai tusu ka Seragunting, diengkah iya dalam daun kayu. Udah makai, Seragunting nyau nyabak baru lalu nunjuk ka tunga alai seduai patut nampung pejalai. Malam seduai bemalam di bandir kayu. Bakanya berari meh pejalai seduai iya. Tiap pagi endsng bisi berari bekal seduai iya enggau ai tusu ka Seragunting. Nyau kelama seduai iya pan datai di tebing tasik. Dia seduai iya lalu diulu ka Empelawa Jawa nengah pasir ti enda tentu dalam. Udah nya seduai iya lalu mansa menua Tansang Kenyalang. Maya hari nyau lemai, seduai pan datai di pemandi sida Endu Dara Tinchin Temaga lalu tepeda ka iya tengan mandi. Iya mada ka jalai ari pemandi ngagai rumah panjai penuh laban tukak tang enti seduai iya nitih ka penginggap lalat, seduai enda mati laban tukak dia. Iya mega madah ka seduai iya enda tau duduk di ruai orang bukai tang mesti duduk di ruai apai iya; enti makai mesti makai ari pinggai ti endur lalat terubah nepan; enti tinduk, mesti tinduk di kibung ti bisi ditepan sempepat. Udah nya Dara Tinchin lalu pulai ka rumah panjai apai iya Sengalang Burung. Seduai seduai anak iya pan nitih lalu ngasi ka semua jaku ajar Dara Tinchin Temaga.
Orang bukai di rumah nya endsng enggai enggau ngambu Siu seduai Seragunting kaban datai ka Seragunting tau bejalai enggau bejaku. Sehari udah iya nemu bejaku, Seragunting lalu duduk ngimbai aki iya. Sengalang Burung lalu nanya nama kebuah iya bangat berani ngusung nyendi aki iya baka nya.Seragunting madah ka diri berani laban Sengalang Burung aki iya. Sengalang Burung endsng enggai ngaku Seragunting nya uchu iya tang Seragunting majak madah ka diri uchu Sengalang Burung.
“Enti dek amai uchu aku,” ku Sengalang Burung, “uji lungga ti aku slit di tiang nya bai ngasu,” ku Sengalang Burung.
“Ni ukui aku deh?” ku Tanya Seragunting.
“Nya, ukui kurap enggau ukui kaka nya bai dek,” ku (deka disambung)
Posted by dayakibanworld at 4:23 PM


Pengarap lama ngau sampi sakit

Wednesday, October 17, 2012


(Tu dipos aku baru, diambi aku ari bup siti ti tengan ditulis aku ngich ka bala kitai deka nemu pasal asal pengarap asal kitai)


Cerita Gantallah

Mula-mula ia kelia, semua utai puang. Tang maya nya bisi siku utai ti benama Gantallah. Iya bisi semengat lalu tau bejaku, ninga enggau meda tang iya nadai kaki jari. Dunya maya nya puang. Iya lalu ngajih ka dua iku burung nyadi. Burung dua iku tu nepan di atas chapi lalu ngaga langit, tanah enggau Batang Lupar ti lalu nyadi ka indai semua sungai dalam dunya tu. Laban tanah ti digaga seduai ngelui pemesai dunya, nya alai seduai iya lalu ngempuk tanah ti lebih lalu ngaga nya nyadi bukit enggau munggu. Tembu nya sida ngaga babas enggau kayu. Udah semua utai nyadi, seduai iya lalu nguji ngaga mensia ngena kayu ti diraut. Tang pengawa nya enda mujur. Udah nya, seduai iya lalu ngena batu ti ditingkuh awak ka baka mensia. Pengawa tu pan enda ga mujur laban batu nya enda nemu bejaku. Nyau kelama-lama, seduai iya lalu nguji ngena tanah liat ti udah digulai enggau ai lalu dikempuk nyadi mensia. Tubuh, lengan enggau kaki iya diiri seduai iya enggau getah kumpang ti sigi endang mirah, awak ka nyadi darah iya. Lebuh iya dikangau ka seduai, iya pan lalu nemu nyaut. Maya hari panas, tubuh iya neritik pansut peluh. Lebuh iya nyau besai, iya ngaga ka diri indu ka bini ari tanah liat. Anak seduai iya lalu ngisi dunya tu.

Burung Ara Enggau Burung Iri

Nitih ka siti agi cherita, dua iku petara ti baka burung benama Ara enggau Irii melepung di atas tasik. Seduai iya lalu nyambar dua iti utai ti baka telu. Ari nya, Ara lalu ngaga langit, Iri lalu ngaga tanah. Laban tanah besai agi ari langit, nya alai petara dua iku nya lalu meleku ka tanah nya awak ka chukup dibap langit. Nya meh kebuah munggu, bukit, lebak enggau sungai lalu nyadi . Kayu enggau babas mega lalu tumbuh. Meda nadai bisi orang ngani dunya, nya alai petara dua iku nya lalu belabuh ngaga mensia ari kayu. Kayu ti terubah ditebang seduai iya enggai nyadi dikena laban ia mansut ka ai burak. Kayu ti kedua mansut ka ai mirah tang ia mega enggai ngadi dikena laban lebuh seduai iya deka bejaku enggau iya, mensia ti udah diban seduai nya enda nemu nyaut. Seduai iya lalu ngaga mensia ari tanah kempuk, siku lelaki, siku indu. Mensia dua iku nya pan lalu nemu nyaut. Nama seduai iya lalu diberi Tanah Kempuk.

Cherita Raja Entala

Dulu kelia Raja Entala tauka Kree Raja Petara enggau bini iya ngibun dunya ti bedau nyadi. Nyau kelama, seduai iya lalu serabana laban dunya nadai bisi langit, tanah, rumput tauka sungai. Seduai iya lalu bebai ngikih tanah ari tubuh seduai. Daki nya tadi lalu dikena seduai iya ngaga tanah. Tembu nya seduai iya lalu ngikih daki diri baru lalu ngaga langit tang langit nya enda ulih ngebap tanah. Raja Entala lalu ngeruyup ka tanah ngena jari iya. Nya ti ngasuh dunya bisi bukit, lebak, sungai enggau emperan. Utai ti tumbuh dulu ianya lumut, paku enggau lanjang tauka lemiding. Utai tu dientudi ka rumput enggau kayu. Siti ari bansa utai ti tumbuh ianya Pisang Rura. Iya ngayap burung Iri lalu anak suduai iya nyadi semua bansa ikan. Raja Entala mega lalu ngeban mensia ari pisang bangkit. Mensia nya lalu diiri seduai iya enggau getah kumpang ti bechura mirah. Bini Raja Entala lalu ngebap mensia nya enggau pua kumbu. Udah Raja Entala ngangau kali ketiga, lelaki dua iku lalu angkat. Siku diberi nama Telichai Tuai Kitai, siku nama Telichu Tuai Antu. Telichai nurun ka Iban lalu Telichu nurun ka antu.

Cherita Petara Enggau Siti Awa

Nitih ka cherita ari ulu Lemanak, dulu kelia bisi orang lelaki siku ti diau di sebelah madang buluh aur. Nyau kebangai utai, iya meda beris iya kembai. Lebuh kandung iya nya nyau besai, betis iya lalu dibuntas iya enggau dikin. Dia iya meda indu siku pansut. Petara lalu meri indu nya nama Siti Awa lalu ngasuh seduai iya jadi. Orang lelaki nya lalu munuh anak tuai seduai iya. Kerat anak nya ditanam ka iya di sebelah umai ti alai sida lalu tumbuh nyadi entimun, juna, entekai, labu, jawa, ensabi, padi enggau engkundur.

Petara Dalam Pengarap Iban

Dalam pengarap Iban, petara ti pemadu bekuasa endang siku aja. Iya nadai kala diambi ngabang laban kereja iya tekelalu mayuh. Tu meh kebuah lebuh Iban sakit nyau deka mati, manang nadai besampi ngagai Sengalang Burung, Pulang Gana, tauka petara bukai ti suah disebut sehari-hari tang sida besampi terus ngagai Petara munyi tu:

Raja Petara bela ngemata,
Serengendah bela meda,
Ngemeran ka subak tanah lang.

Seregenda bela meda,
Ngemeran ka ai mesai peluh gerunung sanggang.

Seregendi bela meda,
Ngemeran ka jumpu mesai jugu bejampung lempang.

Selendeding bela meda,
Ngemeran ka tinting lurus mematang.

Silingiling bela meda,
Ngemeran ka pating sega ensuluang.

Segunggung bela meda,
Ngemeran ka bungkung mesai benung balang.

Bunsu Rembia bela meda,
Ngemeran ka jengku tapang bedindang.

Bunsu Kamba bela meda,
Ngemeran ka bila maram jarang.

Bemata Raja Petara bela ngemata sampal nilik,
Ari ramang rarat bela nampai ngijap,
Baka kempat kajang sebidang.

Ari pandau banyak bela nampai Petara Guyak,
Baka pantak labung palang.

Ari pintau kemarau sanggau bela ngilau Petara Radau
Baka ti ulih likau nabau bekengkang.

Ari dinding hari bela nampai Petara Menani, manah mati,
Baka kaki lung tetukang.

Ari bulan bela nampai Petara Tebaran,
Betempan kaki subang.

Ari matahari bela mereni Petara kami, manah mati,
Baka segandi manang begitang.

Ari jerit tisi langit bela nampai Petara Megit,
Baka kepit tanggi tudung temelang.

Ari panadu bunyu Petara Megu bela sampai
Mesai langgu ketunsung layang.

Bala Iban mega suah besampi bunyi itu:

Langit Petara dulu mibit,
Mesai dunggul manuk banda;
Tanah Petara dulu ngaga,
Mesai buah mawang melanja;
Ai Petara dulu ngiri,
Mesai linti tali besara;
Tanah lang Petara dulu nenchang,
Nyadi mensia.

Lebuh Iban begawai, Petara enda kala nurun diambi ngabang. Nya alai, lebuh maya Gawai Kelingkang lebuh orang ti ngambi Sengalang Burung ngabang ngagai dunya tu mansa rumah Petara lalu mai iya ngabang, iya lalu nyaut bunyi tu, “Aku enda tau nurun ngabang laban enggai ka anak mensia bisi kena tinggang panusah. Indah ka aku ngantuk sekajap tauka mandi ga sida bisi kena bebadi tauka tetungkam.”

Tu meh kebuah, manang miau orang ti sakit enggau manuk bunyi tu:

Labuh daun buluh;
Tangkap ikan dungan;
Antu ka munuh;
Petara naruh ngembuan;

Labuh daun buluh,
Tangkap ikan empelasi;
Antu ka munuh;
Petara ngaku menyadi.

Labuh daun buluh,
Tangkap ikan semah;
Antu ka munuh;
Petara ngambu serumah.

Labuh daun buluh,
Tangkap ikan juak;
Antu ka munuh,
Petara ngaku a

Cock fighting and headhunting

The Origin and Traditional values of Iban Cock-fighting (English version):

Cock-fighting is another type of culture or recreation which is commonly shared by the Ibans. Their interest for this culture originated from the game introduced by Raja Machan who held a cock-fighting bout with Ambong Mungan. The later lost the contest to Raja Machan and decided to go to visit the supernatural being in the sky to look for a fighting cock. In the domain of the God in the Sky, he met with a Supreme God called Raja Petara who gave him a fighting cock with the coloration of “Tuntong Lang Ngindang Terbai, Biring Belangking Pipit Kechuai”. Raja Petara told him that the fighting cock would never be defeated in the contest. With this prized possession given by the Supreme God, Ambong Mungan staged another cock-fighting session against Raja Machan. With such divine help, he won the contest.

There is another story of an Iban man named Kendawa, who went to the underworld in search for a good fighting cock with the coloration of “Biring Gerunggang”. In the underworld, he met with Ensing Jara who is a deity who looks after the soul of the dead fighting cock. He is also known as God of Cockfighting. These tales goes to show that cock fighting is a serious affair to the past Iban man who went through great length in search for a good fighting cock. Furthermore, they also imitated the game where their fable hero Keling, his friends and Gods of war, Sengalang Burong and his party held a cock-fighting contest against their arch enemies, Apai Sabit Bekait and demon Nising or Beduru in the sky.

The Iban believed that all the fighting cock that the supernatural being (Petara and Bunsu Antu) used in the cock-fighting contest, turned into human warriors. That is why cock fighting is closely tied to intangible qualities of human nature, their spiritual fulfillment and their religious refinement. It signifies a man’s chivalry while fighting enemies during war expeditions. As human beings became the fighting cocks of the supernatural being, they bore many different types of coloration (bulu manok), which is believed to reflect the personality profile of each warrior. The Iban believes that every warrior is born with his or her own “god given” fate (tuah diberi Petara) and destiny (nasib). These fate and destiny can only be seen and read from the scales of the fighting-cock’s leg and in its coloration. The scale is unique to individual rooster reflecting the unique fate given by god to individual warrior. That is why an Iban warrior is called “manok sabong” (fighting cock), spiritually sharing and possessing similar properties and characteristic. Thus, through these supernatural being, the Iban learn how to recognize the different type of coloration of the fighting cock and choose their preferred colorations that fit their personality when they became true warrior. With this traditional knowledge, the Iban learn how to recognize the quality and profile of each warrior and the natural element that influence them.

An Iban man is only a true warrior after he has slain an enemy in a battle. A true warrior will declare to God his praise name (ensumbar) and his choice of fighting cock coloration with the blood of his first slain enemy on their hand, which they tapped on their knees, elbows, on top of their head (bubun) and at the tip of their tongue. The declaration is also followed by swearing to God to abide by the rules of engagement handed down for generations. Once the fighting cock coloration has been declared with an enemy blood, the same coloration fighting cock must be used to honour the said warrior when he is invited to grace any major festival of the Iban people. If he needs to change his praise name later in life, he needs to repeat the same process using a fresh blood of his slain enemy.

The Iban warriors adorn beautiful headgear during major festivals or war expedition. These headgears are decorated with beautiful Angus pheasant feathers to resemble the beauty and grace of a fighting cock. The art of cock fighting teaches them to recognize the vulnerability of individual warriors. This helps the warleader to select individual warriors to perform specific task in a war expedition, which, at times, would include death duel with enemy warriors. That is why cock-fighting is not only a favorite pastime, but it is also a school of thought that teaches chivalrous behavior (courteous and considerate behavior) associated with the spirit of Iban warriors. It also teaches the Iban about the natural behavior, character and instinct of different fighting cock as it’s coloration represented the type of fish, birds, animals and insect living in its natural environment; location of the sun for their active and inactive time, feeding time, playing time, rest time; river tide situation; etc. Cock fighting thus represented the Iban’s religious and personal ideal. It is certainly their unique way of life.

The period when the Ibans normally hold cock-fighting bouts is between the felling season and the time when the burning is approaching. In the past, this was known as the annual cock-fighting Season.

In the past, on the eve of a cock-fighting contest, leaders of the cock-fighting teams would ask two bards to sing renong (folk songs), one after another. The renong that they sang were the ones that were formerly prescribed for war expeditions. They mentioned Keling, Bunga Nuing and party who went on war expeditions against their archenemy, Apai Sabit Bekait. War expeditions are similar to cock-fighting contests. Therefore, whenever the Iban leaders wanted to go on war expeditions, they would ask the bards to sing the renong specifically prescribed for cock-fighting contests, following what Ensing Jara did when he held a cock-fighting bout against Ngerai and Niram from the land of the dead (sebayan). Whenever they sing the renong, mainly for cock-fighting bouts or war expeditions, they must prepare offerings because the supernatural being that used to go on war expeditions or held cock-fighting contests are all mentioned in their songs.

However, to the Ibans who adhere to the old customs, cock fighting does not bring them any harm. It is a traditional sports and if organized professionally, it will be good for the tourism industry which benefits the Dayak people. In the past, the cock-fighting session is the time they exchange views and contemplate various meaningful undertakings with each other. Through their conversation at the cock-fighting arena, a majority of them receive ideas on how to improve their methods of farming, gardening, trading and carrying out activities to raise their community standard of living.

The cunning ones do not indulge themselves too much in gambling and betting during cock-fighting bouts because they remember the advice of their elders on being thrifty. They are aware of the dangers of doing things irresponsibly which will not only reduce their families to destitution but create problems for their children after their deaths.

Nowadays, cocks fighting are being organized occasionally following a major festival, annual gawai Dayak festival and final death rites (ngetas ulit) to mark the end of mourning period. In the headhunting past, death rites was completed with the acquisition of fresh heads. Such practices of blood letting have been replaced with cock-fighting session. This beautiful tradition should be preserved and kept alive in a contemporary Iban society through a better-organized session, proper set of rules and better arena.